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Confirmation Bias

Confirmation Bias
The Misconception: Your opinions are the result of years of rational, objective analysis. The Truth: Your opinions are the result of years of paying attention to information which confirmed what you believed while ignoring information which challenged your preconceived notions. Have you ever had a conversation in which some old movie was mentioned, something like “The Golden Child” or maybe even something more obscure? You laughed about it, quoted lines from it, wondered what happened to the actors you never saw again, and then you forgot about it. Until… You are flipping channels one night and all of the sudden you see “The Golden Child” is playing. What is happening here? Since the party and the conversation where you and your friends took turns saying “I-ah-I-ah-I want the kniiiife” you’ve flipped channels plenty of times; you’ve walked past lots of billboards; you’ve seen dozens of stories about celebrities; you’ve been exposed to a handful of movie trailers. “Be careful. Sources: Related:  PSYCHO SOCIO KNOW

The Just-World Fallacy The Misconception: People who are losing at the game of life must have done something to deserve it. The Truth: The beneficiaries of good fortune often do nothing to earn it, and bad people often get away with their actions without consequences. A woman goes out to a club wearing stilettos and a miniskirt with no underwear. She gets pretty drunk and stumbles home in the wrong direction. Is she to blame in some way? People often say yes to all three in studies asking similar questions after presenting similar scenarios. It is common in fiction for the bad guys to lose and the good guys to win. More specifically, this bias is a lens through which you tend to see the world, and seeing things in this way often leads to a predictable reaction to horrible misfortune like homelessness or drug addiction – believing the people stuck in horrible situations must have done something to deserve it. The key word there is deserve. It sucks to think the world isn’t fair. Why do you do this? Sources:

Steven Pinker i Rebecca Newberger Goldstein: Daleki zasięg rozumu Lucid Dreaming Frequently Asked Questions Answered by The Lucidity Institute Version 2.4 © Lucidity Institute (contact us) This FAQ is a brief introduction to lucid dreaming: what it is, how to do it, and what can be done with it. There are several excellent sources of information on lucid dreaming, the most reliable and extensive of which is the Lucidity Institute website ( Other sources are listed below. "I first heard of lucid dreaming in April of 1982, when I took a course from Dr. 3.4 WHAT TECHNOLOGY IS AVAILABLE TO ASSIST LUCID DREAMING TRAINING?

Misattribution of Arousal The Misconception: You always know why you feel the way you feel. The Truth: You can experience emotional states without knowing why, even if you believe you can pinpoint the source. Source: capbridge.com The bridge is still in British Columbia, still long and scary, still sagging across the Capilano Canyon daring people to traverse it. If you were to place the Statue of Liberty underneath the bridge, base and all, it would lightly drape across her copper shoulders. In 1974, psychologists Art Aron and Donald Dutton hired a woman to stand in the middle of this suspension bridge. The scientists knew the fear in the men’s bellies would be impossible to ignore, and they wanted to know how a brain soaking in anxiety juices would make sense of what just happened. After running the experiment at both locations, they compared the results and found 50 percent of the men who got them digits on the dangerous suspension bridge picked up a phone and called looking for the lady of the canyon. Links:

Procrastination The Misconception: You procrastinate because you are lazy and can’t manage your time well. The Truth: Procrastination is fueled by weakness in the face of impulse and a failure to think about thinking. Netflix reveals something about your own behavior you should have noticed by now, something which keeps getting between you and the things you want to accomplish. If you have Netflix, especially if you stream it to your TV, you tend to gradually accumulate a cache of hundreds of films you think you’ll watch one day. Take a look at your queue. Psychologists actually know the answer to this question, to why you keep adding movies you will never watch to your growing collection of future rentals, and it is the same reason you believe you will eventually do what’s best for yourself in all the other parts of your life, but rarely do. A study conducted in 1999 by Read, Loewenstein and Kalyanaraman had people pick three movies out of a selection of 24. You weigh yourself. How would you pick? Links:

The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature. Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. The Robbers Cave Experiment is a classic social psychology experiment conducted with two groups of 11-year old boys at a state park in Oklahoma, and demonstrates just how easily an exclusive group identity is adopted and how quickly the group can degenerate into prejudice and antagonism toward outsiders. Researcher Muzafer Sherif actually conducted a series of 3 experiments. 2. The prisoners rebelled on the second day, and the reaction of the guards was swift and brutal. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Fanboyism and Brand Loyalty The Misconception: You prefer the things you own over the things you don’t because you made rational choices when we bought them. The Truth: You prefer the things you own because you rationalize your past choices to protect your sense of self. The Internet changed the way people argue. Check any comment system, forum or message board and you will find fanboys going at it, debating why their chosen product is better than the other guy’s. In modern consumer cultures like America, people compete for status through comparing their taste in products. Mac vs. Usually, these arguments are between men, because men will defend their ego no matter how slight the insult. Fanboyism isn’t anything new, it’s just a component of branding, which is something marketers and advertisers have known about since Quaker Oats created a friendly logo to go on their burlap sacks. There was, of course, no friendly Quaker family making the oats back in 1877. Are Apple computers better than Microsoft-based computers?

5 Magic Ways to Connect with Defiant Kids — Danielle Maxon, LCSW When your child is defying you at every twist and turn, it's easy to feel distant and disconnected. They are actively pushing you away, rejecting your love, and disrespecting your rules. Of course you're feeling disconnected! But maintaining and growing your relationship with your child is the #1 thing that will help your family overcome the difficult behaviors. Your relationship with your child is more important than any parenting strategy or type of therapy! 1. There are so many ways to incorporate nurturing touch into your interaction with your child: from hair-ruffling, shoulder-patting, and high-fives, to hugs, snuggle-time, and massage. 2. The quality of your listening is more important than the quantity. 3. Kids spend all day at school hearing "123, Look at Me" only to come home to "Look at me when I'm talking to you!" 4. Create a routine with your child that allows for quality time. 5. Want some quick strategies to avoid the dreaded power struggles?

Learned Helplessness The Misconception: If you are in a bad situation, you will do whatever you can do to escape it. The Truth: If you feel like you aren’t in control of your destiny, you will give up and accept whatever situation you are in. In 1965, a scientist named Martin Seligman started shocking dogs. He was trying to expand on the research of Pavlov – the guy who could make dogs salivate when they heard a bell ring. Seligman wanted to head in the other direction, and when he rang his bell instead of providing food he zapped them with electricity. To keep them still, he restrained them in a harness during the experiment. After they were conditioned, he put these dogs in a big box with a little fence dividing it into two halves. You are just like these dogs. If, over the course of your life, you have experienced crushing defeat or pummeling abuse or loss of control, you learn over time there is no escape, and if escape is offered, you will not act – you become a nihilist who trusts futility above optimism.

The Origin of the 8-Hour Work Day and Why We Should Rethink It One of the most unchanged elements of our life today is our optimal work time or how long we should work – generally, every person I’ve spoken to quotes me something close to 8 hours a day. And data seems to confirm that: The average American works 8.8 hours every day. At least, those are the official statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics: And yet, for most of us it is obvious that knowing how long the average person works every day has little to do with how efficient or productive that pattern is. With success stories from people working 4 hours a week, to 16 hours a day, it’s hard to know if there is an optimal amount. Share stories like this to your social media followers when they’re most likely to click, favorite, and reply! Why do we have 8 hour work days in the first place? Let’s start out with what we have right now. In the late 18th century, when companies started to maximize the output of their factories, getting to running them 24/7 was key. So there we have it. 1.)

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