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Confirmation Bias

Confirmation Bias
The Misconception: Your opinions are the result of years of rational, objective analysis. The Truth: Your opinions are the result of years of paying attention to information which confirmed what you believed while ignoring information which challenged your preconceived notions. Have you ever had a conversation in which some old movie was mentioned, something like “The Golden Child” or maybe even something more obscure? You laughed about it, quoted lines from it, wondered what happened to the actors you never saw again, and then you forgot about it. Until… You are flipping channels one night and all of the sudden you see “The Golden Child” is playing. What is happening here? Since the party and the conversation where you and your friends took turns saying “I-ah-I-ah-I want the kniiiife” you’ve flipped channels plenty of times; you’ve walked past lots of billboards; you’ve seen dozens of stories about celebrities; you’ve been exposed to a handful of movie trailers. “Be careful. Sources: Related:  PSYCHO SOCIO KNOW

STAGE Consistent response to needs builds trust in environment, self, feeling of inner goodness Significant: Maternal/parent - baby relationship builds foundation for spiritual/relationship intimacy, separation painful 6 months - 1 year Assertion of will, conflicting independence/dependence, "holding on & letting go," rituals-routines-sameness, "No"--control: active, stormy, mobile Significant: Parents Play more meaningful/ associative, explore, "intrusive" sex role\identity, imagination, curiosity, fantasy, fears, internalizing values, conscience/guilt, sense of self Significant: Family "Mastery," & work pleasure, need for self esteem, desire to learn, increasing independence, awareness of world at large, increased physical activity, empathy, concrete logic, rules, moralistic, right from wrong Significant: Family, peers, school, neighborhood Physical changes, sense of identity never gained or maintained completely Significant: Peers, role models, leaders, family create bonds of intimacy, sense of self

The Just-World Fallacy The Misconception: People who are losing at the game of life must have done something to deserve it. The Truth: The beneficiaries of good fortune often do nothing to earn it, and bad people often get away with their actions without consequences. A woman goes out to a club wearing stilettos and a miniskirt with no underwear. She gets pretty drunk and stumbles home in the wrong direction. Is she to blame in some way? People often say yes to all three in studies asking similar questions after presenting similar scenarios. It is common in fiction for the bad guys to lose and the good guys to win. More specifically, this bias is a lens through which you tend to see the world, and seeing things in this way often leads to a predictable reaction to horrible misfortune like homelessness or drug addiction – believing the people stuck in horrible situations must have done something to deserve it. The key word there is deserve. It sucks to think the world isn’t fair. Why do you do this? Sources:

Confirmation bias Tendency of people to favor information that confirms their beliefs or hypotheses Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,[Note 1] is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses.[1] It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. A series of psychological experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Types[edit] Confirmation biases are effects in information processing. Biased search for information[edit] Biased interpretation[edit] Biased memory[edit]

Steven Pinker i Rebecca Newberger Goldstein: Daleki zasięg rozumu Lucid Dreaming Frequently Asked Questions Answered by The Lucidity Institute Version 2.4 © Lucidity Institute (contact us) This FAQ is a brief introduction to lucid dreaming: what it is, how to do it, and what can be done with it. There are several excellent sources of information on lucid dreaming, the most reliable and extensive of which is the Lucidity Institute website ( Other sources are listed below. "I first heard of lucid dreaming in April of 1982, when I took a course from Dr. 3.4 WHAT TECHNOLOGY IS AVAILABLE TO ASSIST LUCID DREAMING TRAINING?

What Does Your Body Language Say About You? How To Read Signs and Recognize Gestures - Jinxi Boo - Jinxi Boo Art by LaetitziaAs we all know, communication is essential in society. Advancements in technology have transformed the way that we correspond with others in the modern world. Because of the constant buzz in our technological world, it's easy to forget how important communicating face-to-face is. When conversing old-school style, it's not only speech we verbalize that matters, but what our nonverbal gestures articulate as well. Body language is truly a language of its own. 10% from what the person actually says40% from the tone and speed of voice50% is from their body language. Lowering one's head can signal a lack of confidence. Pushing back one's shoulders can demonstrate power and courageOpen arms means one is comfortable with being approached and willing to talk/communicate

Misattribution of Arousal The Misconception: You always know why you feel the way you feel. The Truth: You can experience emotional states without knowing why, even if you believe you can pinpoint the source. Source: capbridge.com The bridge is still in British Columbia, still long and scary, still sagging across the Capilano Canyon daring people to traverse it. If you were to place the Statue of Liberty underneath the bridge, base and all, it would lightly drape across her copper shoulders. In 1974, psychologists Art Aron and Donald Dutton hired a woman to stand in the middle of this suspension bridge. The scientists knew the fear in the men’s bellies would be impossible to ignore, and they wanted to know how a brain soaking in anxiety juices would make sense of what just happened. After running the experiment at both locations, they compared the results and found 50 percent of the men who got them digits on the dangerous suspension bridge picked up a phone and called looking for the lady of the canyon. Links:

Risk aversion Risk aversion is a concept in economics and finance, based on the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors) while exposed to uncertainty to attempt to reduce that uncertainty. Risk aversion is the reluctance of a person to accept a bargain with an uncertain payoff rather than another bargain with a more certain, but possibly lower, expected payoff. For example, a risk-averse investor might choose to put his or her money into a bank account with a low but guaranteed interest rate, rather than into a stock that may have high expected returns, but also involves a chance of losing value. Example[edit] Utility function of a risk-averse (risk-avoiding) individual. Utility function of a risk-neutral individual. Utility function of a risk-affine (risk-seeking) individual. A person is given the choice between two scenarios, one with a guaranteed payoff and one without. The average payoff of the gamble, known as its expected value, is $50. Utility of money[edit] ). where and . , and when .

Procrastination The Misconception: You procrastinate because you are lazy and can’t manage your time well. The Truth: Procrastination is fueled by weakness in the face of impulse and a failure to think about thinking. Netflix reveals something about your own behavior you should have noticed by now, something which keeps getting between you and the things you want to accomplish. If you have Netflix, especially if you stream it to your TV, you tend to gradually accumulate a cache of hundreds of films you think you’ll watch one day. Take a look at your queue. Psychologists actually know the answer to this question, to why you keep adding movies you will never watch to your growing collection of future rentals, and it is the same reason you believe you will eventually do what’s best for yourself in all the other parts of your life, but rarely do. A study conducted in 1999 by Read, Loewenstein and Kalyanaraman had people pick three movies out of a selection of 24. You weigh yourself. How would you pick? Links:

The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature. Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. The Robbers Cave Experiment is a classic social psychology experiment conducted with two groups of 11-year old boys at a state park in Oklahoma, and demonstrates just how easily an exclusive group identity is adopted and how quickly the group can degenerate into prejudice and antagonism toward outsiders. Researcher Muzafer Sherif actually conducted a series of 3 experiments. 2. The prisoners rebelled on the second day, and the reaction of the guards was swift and brutal. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Related:  Choice