Ice A glacier is made from ice, itself resulting from snow accumulation. Frozen water in the form of an ordinary (household) ice cube. The white zone in the center is due to tiny air bubbles. Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Ice is used for a wide range of applications including cooling, winter sports and the art of ice sculpting. The word is derived from Old English īs, which in turn stems from Proto-Germanic isaz. Characteristics Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. As a naturally-occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral. It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H-O-H. The result of this process is that ice (in its most common form) floats on liquid water, which is an important feature in Earth's biosphere. When ice melts, it absorbs as much energy as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C. Hail
Sky The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies a certain distance[clarification needed] above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space. In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is an imaginary dome where the sun, stars, planets, and the moon are seen to be traveling. During the day A greater proportion of blue light scattered by the atmosphere relative to red light. Civil, nautical, and astronomical twilight. Dawn is the beginning of morning twilight. Except for light that comes directly from the sun, most of the light in the day sky is caused by scattering, which is dominated by a small-particle limit called Rayleigh Scattering. Scattering also occurs even more strongly in clouds. The sun is not the only object that may appear less blue in atmosphere. Sky luminance distribution models have been recommended by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the design of daylighting schemes. Dusk and dawn
Sadness A detail of the 1672 sculpture Entombment of Christ, showing Mary Magdalene crying. In childhood Sadness is a common experience in childhood. Acknowledging such emotions can make it easier for families to address more serious emotional problems, although some families may have a (conscious or unconscious) rule that sadness is "not allowed". Robin Skynner has suggested that this may cause problems when "screened-off emotion isn't available to us when we need it... the loss of sadness makes us a bit manic". Sadness is part of the normal process of the child separating from an early symbiosis with the mother and becoming more independent. Every time a child separates just a tiny bit more, he or she will have to cope with a small loss. Neuroanatomy Coping mechanisms A sad adolescent When some individuals feel sad, they may exclude themselves, in doing so they take time to recover from this feeling. Pupil empathy Pupil size may be an indicator of sadness.
Winter Winter (/ˈwɪntər/) is the coldest season of the year in temperate climates, between autumn and spring. It is caused by the axis of the Earth in the respective hemisphere being oriented away from the Sun. Different cultures define different dates as the start of winter, and some use a definition based on weather, but when it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa. In many regions, winter is associated with snow and freezing temperatures. Cause The tilt of the Earth's axis relative to its orbital plane plays a big role in the weather. During winter in either hemisphere, the lower altitude of the Sun causes the sunlight to hit that hemisphere at an oblique angle. Meteorological reckoning Animation of snow cover changing with the seasons Accumulations of snow and ice are commonly associated with winter in the Northern Hemisphere, due to the large land masses there. Astronomical and other calendar-based reckoning
Police A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing. As police are often interacting with individuals, slang terms are numerous. Many slang terms for police officers are decades or centuries old with lost etymology. Etymology History Ancient policing In Ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In the Roman Empire, the Army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Medieval policing
Royal family A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, while the terms ducal family, grand ducal family or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals". It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world – kings, queens, sultans, emperors, emirs and others – who rule or reign over 43 countries in all. Members of a royal family The Royal Family of France in classical costume during the reign of Louis XIV. Current royal families
Boy A boy is a young male human, usually child or adolescent. When he becomes an adult he's described as a man. The most apparent thing that differentiates a boy from a girl is that a boy typically has a penis while girls have a vagina. However, some intersex children with ambiguous genitals, and genetically female transgender children, may also be classified or self-identify as a boy. The term "boy" is primarily used to indicate biological sex distinctions, cultural gender role distinctions or both. The latter most commonly applies to adult men, either considered in some way immature or inferior, in a position associated with aspects of boyhood, or even without such boyish connotation as age-indiscriminate synonym. Etymology The word "boy" comes from Middle English boi, boye ("boy, servant"), related to other Germanic words for boy, namely East Frisian boi ("boy, young man") and West Frisian boai ("boy"). Characteristics of boys Uses of the term "boy" and related terms Military
Cold Cold refers to the condition or subjective perception of having low temperature, the opposite of hot.[note 1] A lower bound to temperature is the absolute zero, defined as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. This corresponds to −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale, and 0 °R on the Rankine scale. Since temperature relates to the thermal energy held by an object or a sample of matter, which is the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particle constituents of matter, an object will have less thermal energy when it is colder and more when it is hotter. Cooling Cooling refers to the process of becoming cold, or lowering in temperature. Fluids used to cool objects are commonly called coolants. Air cooling is the process of cooling an object by exposing it to air. Another common method of cooling is exposing an object to ice, dry ice, or liquid nitrogen. Notable cold locations and objects See also Notes
Calm From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia CALM may refer to: Organisations Science/medicine terms Café-Au-Lait Macules ("spots") as seen in the medical condition neurofibromatosisCommunications, Air-interface, Long and Medium range, a standardized set of air interface protocols and parameters for medium and long range, high speed ITS communicationClathrin-assembly lymphoid myeloid leukaemia protein, a ubiquitous form of the AP180 clathrin adaptor protein in the synaptic vesicles of mammals Legislation Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation Act, U.S. legislation prohibiting TV commercials from being louder than the program on which they are shown.Cliff Alleviation at the Last Minute Act, U.S. legislation introduced to ease problems related to the fiscal cliff Other uses The NASDAQ ticker for Cal-Maine Foods, Inc.
Magic (paranormal) Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language. Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth. Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect. The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today. Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy. The word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts of the Persian Magicians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος), the Zoroastrian astrologer priests of the ancient Persian Empire.
Truth Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal. The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion. Many human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these include most (but not all) of the sciences, law, and everyday life. Definition and etymology An angel carrying the banner of "Truth", Roslin, Midlothian Thus, 'truth' involves both the quality of "faithfulness, fidelity, loyalty, sincerity, veracity", and that of "agreement with fact or reality", in Anglo-Saxon expressed by sōþ (Modern English sooth). All Germanic languages besides English have introduced a terminological distinction between truth "fidelity" and truth "factuality".
Democratic Party (United States) Since the 1930s, the party has promoted a social liberal platform. Until the late 20th century the party had a powerful conservative and populist wing based in the rural South, which over time has greatly diminished. Today its Congressional caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists. History The Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to the Federalist party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism, a weak federal government, states' rights, agrarian interests (especially Southern planters) and strict adherence to the Constitution; it opposed a national bank, close ties to Great Britain, and business and banking interests. The Party came to power in the election of 1800. 1860s 1900s Modern era Electoral history Name and symbols "A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast.
Capitalism The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism. Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements. Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures. Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Etymology