The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET) has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property. One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Designated Engineering Representative, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Ingenieur or European Engineer. History Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Ancient era Renaissance era Modern era
Military engineeringMilitary engineering is loosely defined as the art and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. This discipline of engineering is regarded as the oldest form of engineering and is also the precursor of the civil engineering discipline. The term civil engineering derived from the need of a separation between military and non-military engineering fields. According to NATO, "Military Engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, to shape the physical operating environment.' In some countries, military engineers may also perform non-military construction tasks in peacetime such as flood control and river navigation works, but such activities do not fall within the scope of military engineering. Origins Tasks of Military Engineering Modern military engineering can be divided into three main tasks or fields: combat engineering, strategic support, and ancillary support.
HistoryRoman military engineeringThe military engineering of Ancient Rome's armed forces were of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries'. Indeed, military engineering was in many ways institutionally endemic in Roman military culture, as demonstrated by the fact that each Roman legionary had as part of his equipment a shovel, alongside his gladius (sword) and pila (spears). Fabri were workers, craftsmen or artisans in Roman society and descriptions of early Roman army structure (Legion assumed) attributed to king Servius Tullius describe there being two centuriae of fabri under an officer, the praefectus fabrum. Roman military engineering took both routine and extraordinary forms, the former a proactive part of standard military procedure, and the latter of an extraordinary or reactionary nature. Proactive and routine military engineering The Roman legionary fortified camp Each Roman legion had a military legionary fort as its permanent base. Bridge building Road making
EducationGrandes écolesThe grandes écoles (literally in French "Grand School" or "Elite School") of France are higher education establishments outside the main framework of the French university system. The grandes écoles select students for admission based chiefly on national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. In contrast, French public universities have a legal obligation to accept all candidates of the region who hold a baccalauréat. Usually candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes, although this is not always the case. The grandes écoles do not have large student bodies (6,000 at the largest establishment, Arts et Métiers ParisTech); most have a few hundred students each year). Classification as grandes écoles Origins The model was probably the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus. Today There is no standard definition or official list of grandes écoles. Methods of admission to the grandes écoles
Charles-Augustin de CoulombCharles-Augustin de Coulomb (French: [kulɔ̃]; 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French physicist. He was best known for developing Coulomb's law, the definition of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion, but also did important work on friction. The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named after him. Life Charles Augustin de Coulomb was born in Angoulême in France. His parents were Henry Coulomb and Catherine Bajet. Coulomb graduated in November 1761 from École royale du génie de Mézières. On his return to France, Coulomb was sent to Bouchain. Upon his return to France, with the rank of Captain, he was employed at La Rochelle, the Isle of Aix and Cherbourg. In 1781, he was stationed at Paris. Coulomb leaves a legacy as a pioneer in the field of geotechnical engineering for his contribution to retaining wall design. Research In 1785, Coulomb presented his first three reports on Electricity and Magnetism: - Septième Mémoire "On magnetism" (1789)
Leonhard EulerA statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." Life Early years Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastor's daughter. Euler's formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. Saint Petersburg Around this time Johann Bernoulli's two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. 1957 Soviet Union stamp commemorating the 250th birthday of Euler. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia and to close the scientific gap with Western Europe. Berlin Concerned about the continuing turmoil in Russia, Euler left St. Eyesight deterioration In St.
Isaac NewtonSir Isaac Newton PRS MP (/ˈnjuːtən/; 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. Life Early life Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Middle years Mathematics Optics
Robert HookeRobert Hooke FRS (/hʊk/; 28 July [O.S. 18 July] 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath. His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity. Robert Gunther's Early Science in Oxford, a history of science in Oxford during the Protectorate, Restoration and Age of Enlightenment, devotes five of its fourteen volumes to Hooke. Hooke studied at Wadham College during the Protectorate where he became one of a tightly knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins. Life and works Hooke's microscope, from an engraving in Micrographia. Early life Robert Hooke was born in 1635 in Freshwater on the Isle of Wight to John Hooke and Cecily Gyles. Oxford