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Engineering

Engineering
The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET)[1] has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property.[2][3] One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Designated Engineering Representative, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Ingenieur or European Engineer. History[edit] Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Ancient era[edit] Renaissance era[edit] Modern era[edit] Related:  Engineering sciences

Military engineering Military engineering is loosely defined as the art and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. This discipline of engineering is regarded as the oldest form of engineering and is also the precursor of the civil engineering discipline. The term civil engineering derived from the need of a separation between military and non-military engineering fields. According to NATO, "Military Engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, to shape the physical operating environment.' In some countries, military engineers may also perform non-military construction tasks in peacetime such as flood control and river navigation works, but such activities do not fall within the scope of military engineering. Origins[edit] Tasks of Military Engineering[edit] Modern military engineering can be divided into three main tasks or fields: combat engineering, strategic support, and ancillary support.

Applied mathematics Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that deals with mathematical methods that find use in science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry. Thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems by formulating and studying mathematical models. In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the subject of study in pure mathematics where abstract concepts are studied for their own sake. The activity of applied mathematics is thus intimately connected with research in pure mathematics. History[edit] Divisions[edit] Today, the term "applied mathematics" is used in a broader sense. There is no consensus as to what the various branches of applied mathematics are. Utility[edit] Status in academic departments[edit] Associated mathematical sciences[edit]

Architecture Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.[1][2] Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton – from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: Architecture has to do with planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience to reflect functional, technical, social, environmental and aesthetic considerations. The word "architecture" has also been adopted to describe other designed systems, especially in information technology.[3] History[edit]

History Nuclear technology A residential smoke detector is the most familiar piece of nuclear technology for some people Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine and nuclear weapons. History and scientific background[edit] Discovery[edit] The vast majority of common, natural phenomena on Earth only involve gravity and electromagnetism, and not nuclear reactions. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts when he discovered a new phenomenon which came to be called radioactivity.[1] He, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie began investigating the phenomenon. The new phenomenon of radioactivity was seized upon by the manufacturers of quack medicine (as had the discoveries of electricity and magnetism, earlier), and a number of patent medicines and treatments involving radioactivity were put forward. Fission[edit] Fusion[edit] Nuclear weapons[edit] Civilian uses[edit]

Applied engineering (field) Applied engineering is the field concerned with the application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization. Applied-engineering degreed programs typically include instruction in basic engineering principles, project management, industrial processes, production and operations management, systems integration and control, quality control, and statistics.[1] On completion of an applied engineering program, students will demonstrate the following management competencies that clearly distinguish them from traditional engineering graduates: • Use appropriate statistical techniques in variable and attribute control charts and in sampling tables for continuous improvement. • Evaluate and/or implement total quality systems in industry. Associate Degree Programs

Roman military engineering The military engineering of Ancient Rome's armed forces were of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries'. Indeed, military engineering was in many ways institutionally endemic in Roman military culture, as demonstrated by the fact that each Roman legionary had as part of his equipment a shovel, alongside his gladius (sword) and pila (spears). Fabri were workers, craftsmen or artisans in Roman society and descriptions of early Roman army structure (Legion assumed) attributed to king Servius Tullius describe there being two centuriae of fabri under an officer, the praefectus fabrum. Roman military engineering took both routine and extraordinary forms, the former a proactive part of standard military procedure, and the latter of an extraordinary or reactionary nature. Proactive and routine military engineering[edit] The Roman legionary fortified camp[edit] Each Roman legion had a military legionary fort as its permanent base. Bridge building[edit] Road making[edit]

String theory String theory was first studied in the late 1960s[3] as a theory of the strong nuclear force before being abandoned in favor of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. Five consistent versions of string theory were developed until it was realized in the mid-1990s that they were different limits of a conjectured single 11-dimensional theory now known as M-theory.[4] Many theoretical physicists, including Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten and Juan Maldacena, believe that string theory is a step towards the correct fundamental description of nature: it accommodates a consistent combination of quantum field theory and general relativity, agrees with insights in quantum gravity (such as the holographic principle and black hole thermodynamics) and has passed many non-trivial checks of its internal consistency.

Applied physics Applied physics is physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use.[1] It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between "pure" physics and engineering.[2] "Applied" is distinguished from "pure" by a subtle combination of factors such as the motivation and attitude of researchers and the nature of the relationship to the technology or science that may be affected by the work.[3] It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving an engineering problem. This approach is similar to that of applied mathematics. Applied physicists can also be interested in the use of physics for scientific research.

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