background preloader

Linguistic relativity

Linguistic relativity
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions: Strong version: that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categoriesWeak version: that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour. The term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis" is a misnomer, because Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored anything, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis. Definitional issues and debates[edit] The concept of linguistic relativity holds that cognitive processes, such as thought and experience, may be influenced by the categories and patterns of the language a person speaks. History[edit]

Neurolinguistics: Language and biology Neurolinguistics: Language and biology Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System basic cellular unit (chemical transmission, neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine) 1. Neurology: the science and medicine of the brain (related to neuron = brain cell). Neuroscience: just the science part of neurology, plus (sometimes) the study of artificial neural networks (i.e. connectionism). Neuropsychology: a branch of neurology that deals with the connections between the brain and behavior, using cognitive psychological models. Neurolinguistics: a branch of neuropsychology that deals with language. The major parts are: Cerebellum: the little brain near the back Cerebrum: the famous part of the brain. All vertebrates have this characteristic. More about the cortex: Not everything happens in this cortical system; there are also subcortical connections: neural pathways that lead directly from one part of the cortex to another (like a "secret passage"). Cortical wrinkles: terminology: 2. 3.

Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China is a non-fiction book by psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton on the psychology of brainwashing and mind control. Lifton's research for the book began in 1953 with a series of interviews with American servicemen who had been held captive during the Korean War. In addition to interviews with 25 Americans, Lifton also interviewed 15 Chinese who had fled their homeland after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. From these interviews, which in some cases occurred regularly for over a year, Lifton identified the tactics used by Chinese communists to cause drastic shifts in one's opinions and personality and "brainwash" American soldiers into making demonstrably false assertions. Main points[edit] In the book, Lifton outlines the "Eight Criteria for Thought Reform": Milieu Control. Thought-terminating cliché[edit] Lifton said:[4][5] Examples[edit] General examples “Think of the children”

Fourier series In mathematics, a Fourier series (English pronunciation: /ˈfɔərieɪ/) decomposes periodic functions or periodic signals into the sum of a (possibly infinite) set of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines (or complex exponentials). The Discrete-time Fourier transform is a periodic function, often defined in terms of a Fourier series. And the Z-transform reduces to a Fourier series for the important case |z|=1. History[edit] The Fourier series is named in honour of Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768–1830), who made important contributions to the study of trigonometric series, after preliminary investigations by Leonhard Euler, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and Daniel Bernoulli. The heat equation is a partial differential equation. Definition[edit] is a periodic function with period P. Function s(x) (in red) is a sum of six sine functions of different amplitudes and harmonically related frequencies. we can also write the function in these equivalent forms: where: approximates on .

Language and Thought Stacy Phipps December 13, 2001 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has changed the way many people look at the relationship between language, thought and cultural perception of reality. It has influenced many scholars and opened up large areas of study. While many like Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf support the notion that language strongly influences thought and others argue that language does not influence thought, the evidence from research indicates that language does influence thought and perception of reality to a degree but language does not govern thought or reality. Language and Thought The relationship between language, thought and reality has occupied philosophers, linguists, anthropologists and psychologists for centuries. Our senses, conversant about particular sensible object, do convey into the mind several distinct perceptions of things according to those various ways wherein those objects affect them. 1. 2. 3. 4. Brown, Roger. 1968. Carroll, John (ed.) 1956. Chaika, Elaine. 1989.

Semiotics Is your Brand using the right Symbols? Our world is full of symbols, and we are all surrounded by symbols and signs every hour of every day. Our brains constantly use signs and symbols to access mental shortcuts. These shortcuts allow us to simplify and manage the world in all its complexity. 11 Brand Colours and their Meanings “There is no model; there is only colour” - Paul Cezanne Earlier this month, Cadbury lost the fight to fully trademark their distinctive purple colour (although it is uniquely theirs for chocolate). Colours are powerful weapons in any branding toolkit and rich with meanings. The Semiotics of Market Research Agencies (Part 2) We know what the big global agencies think about themselves (read here), but what about the smaller global and regional agencies in Asia? The Meaning of Grey – the Colour of Age and Wisdom “Regrets are the natural property of grey hairs.” - Charles Dickens “I am black or white, I’ll never be grey in my life.” - Diego Maradona Read more »

Logocracy Logocracy is the rule of—or government by—words. It is derived from the Greek λόγος (logos) - "word" and from κράτος (kratos) - to "govern". The term can be used either positively, ironically or negatively. Historical examples[edit] "unknown to these people themselves, their government is a pure unadulterated LOGOCRACY or government of words. The Soviet Union was described by Nobel Prize winner Czesław Miłosz,[3] as a logocracy.[4] It was for example, according to Christine D. Totalitarianism, according to political theorist Hannah Arendt, can be considered a logocracy, since in it ideas are no longer important, just how they are expressed.[8] Academic Yahya Michot has referred to Sunni Islam as a "popular" or "laic logocracy", in that it is government by the word of the Koran.[9] See also[edit] Videocracy - the power of the image, an important modern extension to logocracy but also a potential opposing force.[10]Political Correctness - rule of correct terminology.[11] References[edit]

How To Harmonize Your Dual-Boot Setup for Windows and Ubuntu Looking for some harmony between Windows 7 and Ubuntu in your dual-boot setup? Here are a few ways you can make the tense OS situation a little more unified and copacetic. Background When we covered How to Choose a Partition Scheme for Your Linux PC, we noticed that some people were wondering how to use a third partition between Linux and Windows to act as a storage partition. Why It’s Difficult As a few commenters pointed out, you can’t use an NTFS-formatted partition for /home in Linux. Image from, assumed fair use A Work-Around There isn’t a way to run your /home directory from a FAT32 or NTFS partition, so your configuration files and scripts will have to remain there. This isn’t a proper workaround. Linux has come a long way with regards to reading and writing NTFS, and since it’s much better than FAT32 and tougher to configure this setup with, that’s what we’ll be covering in this guide. Partition Scheme Auto-Mount Your Storage Partition (Linux) Prep Work fstab sudo blkid

Why Does My iPhone 4S Now Say 4G, Not 3G? Because It Is* 4G? Psh. Tell us when a software update transforms our phones into 5G devices: Then we'll be excited. Yes, you read that right. A Tuesday software update released by Apple bumped all iOS devices up to version 5.1 of the operating system. In other words, Apple has finally patented a method for upgrading the hardware of one's device over the airwaves. We kid. Much has been written about how AT&T's playing a "marketing game" with the 4G terminology, but is it really the carrier's fault that it brands non-LTE devices as "4G?" Spoiler: All of the major U.S. carriers share a little blame. When the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) released its first definition of "4G," the umbrella term included just two networking technologies: WiMax 2 and LTE-Advanced, representing two standards that could hit the ITU's "4G" speed requirements of 100 Mbps while mobile and 1 Gbps while stationary. So how did the carriers solve this dilemma? Confused?

Symbols, Signs, Metaphors and Meanings “Culture is the collective programming of the mind.” - Geert Hofstede A world of symbols What makes us all so interesting to researchers and marketers is our enquiring mind, and nothing shows this more vividly than the web of beliefs and ideas that we have created to make meaning from the complexity of the world around us. A very important part of this framework is the vocabulary of signs and symbols that help remind us of our link to the world and each other. Signs are quite straightforward in their function of providing a visual language to help us understand the dangers ahead on the road, the feelings of a friend or the key benefits of a brand (signs are mainly but not always visual and may also be communicated through other senses). Symbols are more complex as they may represent a more abstract idea. The symbol above is Ankh, also known as the key of life, which represented eternal life to the ancient Egyptians. The origin of symbols Symbols of today What does it mean? Marketing signs

Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. Scientific hypotheses[edit] Examples[edit] Counting[edit] Different cultures use numbers in different ways. Perhaps the most different counting system from that of modern Western civilisation is the “one-two-many” system used by the Pirahã people. Orientation[edit] Color[edit] Language may influence color processing. Other schools of thought[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Gordon, P., (2004).

Invent Your Own Computer Games with Python - Learn how to program with a free ebook programming tutorial John R. Ehrenfeld: Sustainability and the Sacred