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How Alcohol Affects the Brain

How Alcohol Affects the Brain
General Effects of Alcohol on the Brain Alcohol can affect several parts of the brain, but in general, alcohol contracts brain tissue and depresses the central nervous system. Also, alcohol destroys brain cells and unlike many other types of cells in the body, brain cells do not regenerate. Excessive drinking over a prolonged period of time can cause serious problems with cognition and memory. When alcohol reaches the brain, it interferes with communication between nerve cells, by interacting with the receptors on some cells. The alcohol suppresses excitatory nerve pathway activity and increases inhibitory nerve pathway activity. Chemical Effects of Alcohol on the Brain To understand how alcohol interferes with brain function, it is necessary to know a little bit about normal brain function. The gap between cells where neurotransmitters are active is called the synapse. When alcohol is introduced to the synapse, the normal neurotransmission may be affected. The cerebral cortex and alcohol Related:  Disorders

Phantoms in the Brain The writings of Oliver Sacks and others have shown us that we can learn much about ourselves by looking closely at the deficits shown by people with neurological problems. V.S. Ramachandran has seen countless patients suffering from anosognosia, phantom limb pain, blindsight, and other disorders, and he brings a remarkable mixture of clinical intuition and research savvy to bear on their problems. He is one of the few scientists who are able and willing to explore the personal, subjective ramifications of his work; he rehumanizes an often too-sterile field and captures the spirit of wonder so essential for true discovery. Phantoms in the Brain is equal parts medical mystery, scientific adventure, and philosophical speculation. Watch the full documentary now (playlist - 1 hour, 39 minutes)

Hunting Alzheimer’s Early Signs - Science in 2011 Todd Heisler/The New York Times FAMILY DISEASE Carlos Alberto Villegas is looked after by his wife, Blanca Nelly Betancur. He is one of the many members of a Colombian clan who have a genetic mutation that leads them to develop dementia. Scientists now know Alzheimer’s attacks the brain long before people exhibit or cognitive decline. If drugs could be given sooner, tailored to specific biological changes, or biomarkers, in the brain, treatment, or even prevention, might be more successful. “We’re trying to go earlier and earlier in the course of the disease,” said Neil Buckholtz, chief of the Dementias of Aging branch at the National Institute on Aging. Several research projects are expecting to make strides next year. One involves the world’s largest family to experience Alzheimer’s disease, an extended clan of about 5,000 people in Colombia, many of whom have inherited a genetic mutation that guarantees they will develop , usually in their 40s. While Dr. The team, also led by Dr.

Subliminal Stimuli Explained Subliminal Articles There is a lot of misunderstanding about the term subliminal and how subliminal messages, especially those found a subliminal CDs, work. Subliminal messages are not just verbal commands. They can take the form of a single hidden word, entire sentences or even images which elicit an emotional response at a subconscious level. Therefore most subliminal messages, in popular use, are better referred to as "subliminal stimuli". The word "subliminal" is used to refer to anything that is registered by the brain but is only offered to the senses below the threshold of conscious perception. Subliminal stimuli refers to anything that stimulations the brain and senses at a subliminal level. For example an image may be shown so quickly to an individual that all he or she is consciously aware of is a flash of light or imperceptible image. Likewise a verbal message may also be hidden, or "masked", behind other sounds so that the words being spoken are imperceptible.

Neuroticism Emotional stability[edit] At the opposite end of the spectrum, individuals who score low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress. They tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. Although they are low in negative emotion, they are not necessarily high on positive emotion. Being high on positive emotion is an element of the independent trait of extraversion. Measurement[edit] Like other personality traits, neuroticism is typically viewed as a continuous dimension rather than distinct. Extent of neuroticism is generally assessed using self-report measures, although peer-reports and third-party observation can also be used. Lexical measures use individual adjectives that reflect neurotic traits, such as anxiety, envy, jealously, moodiness, and are very space and time efficient for research purposes. Statement measures tend to comprise more words, and hence consume more research instrument space, than lexical measures. Lecture 3 The Left Hemisphere From: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Clinical Neuroscience by Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. (Academic Press, New York, 2000) Language, Consciousness, Handedness, Aphasia, Apraxia, Alexia Agraphia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Ego-Centric Speech & The Origin of Thought Handeded and Hemispheric Functional Laterality The left half of the brain controls the right hand. Among 80-90% of right handers, and over 50-80% of those who are left handed, the left cerebral hemisphere provides the neural foundation and mediates most aspects of expressive and receptive linguistic functioning (Frost et al., 1999; Pujol, et al., 1999). As demonstrated with functional imaging and blood flow studies, when reading, speaking, and naming, the left hemisphere becomes highly active (Buchel et al., 1998; Evers et al., 1999; Frost et al., 1999; Peterson et al., 1988, 1990; Price, 1997; Pujol, et al., 1999). The Language Axis "Gnosis" means to "know" Agnosia means, not to know.

Depressive realism Evidence for[edit] Evidence against[edit] When asked to rate both their performance and the performance of another, non-depressed individuals demonstrated positive bias when rating themselves but no bias when rating others. Criticism of the evidence[edit] Some have argued that the evidence is not more conclusive because there is no standard for "reality," the diagnoses are dubious, and the results may not apply to the real world.[33] Because many studies rely on self-report of depressive symptoms, the diagnosis of depression in these studies may not be valid as self-reports are known to often be biased, necessitating the use of other objective measures. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Alloy,L.B., Abramson,L.Y. (1988). Further reading[edit] Rachel Adelson (April 2005). It has now been well established that the right cerebral hemisphere is dominant over the left in regard to the perception, expression and mediation of almost all aspects of social and emotional functioning (e.g. Borod, 1992; Cancelliere & Kertesz, 1990; Freeman & Traugott, 1993; Heilman & Bowers 1995; Heilman et al. 1985; Joseph 1988a; Tucker & Frederick, 1989; see below), including the recall of emotional memories (Cimino et al., 1991; Rauch et al., 1996; Shin et al., 1997). This emotional dominance extends to bilateral control over the autonomic nervous system, including heart rate, blood pressure regulation, galvanic skin conductance and the secretion of cortisol in emotionally upsetting or exciting situations (Rosen et al. 1982; Wittling, 1990; Wittling & Pfluger, 1990; Yamour et al. 1980; Zamarini et al. 1990). However, this dominance does not appear to extend to the immune system (Meador et al., 1999). Aphasia & Depression Wernicke's Area

Madonna–whore complex In sexual politics the view of women as either Madonnas or whores limits women's sexual expression, offering two mutually exclusive ways to construct a sexual identity.[4] The term is also used popularly, often with subtly different meanings. Causes[edit] Freud argued that the Madonna–whore complex is caused by oedipal castration fears which arise when a man experiences the affection he once felt for his mother with women he now sexually desires. In order to manage this anxiety, the man categorizes women into two groups: women he can admire and women he finds sexually attractive. Whereas the man loves women in the former category, he despises and devalues the latter group.[5] Psychoanalyst Richard Tuch suggests that Freud offered at least one alternative explanation for the Madonna–whore complex: According to Freudian psychology, this complex often develops when the sufferer is raised by a cold and distant mother. In popular culture[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Notes Literature John A. When hallucinations follow depth electrode or cortical stimulation, much of the material experienced is very dream-like (Gloor 1990, 1992; Halgren et al., 1978; Malh et al., 1964; Penfield & Perot 1963) and consists of recent perceptions, ideas, feelings, and other emotions which are similarly illusionary and dream-like. Indeed, the right amygdala, hippocampus, and the right hemisphere in general (Broughton, 1982; Goldstein et al., 1972; Hodoba, 1986; Humphrey & Zangwill, 1961; Kerr & Foulkes, 1978; Meyer et al. 1987) also appear to be involved in the production of deam imagery as well as REM sleep (chapter 10). For example stimulation of the amygdala triggers and increases ponto-geniculo-occipital paradoxical activity during sleep (Calvo, et al. 1987), which in turn is associated with REM and dreaming. The Right Hemisphere & Dreams. Forgotten Dreams. Most individuals, however, have difficulty recalling their dreams.

Forer effect A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation.[1] Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship. Thus people seek a correspondence between their perception of their personality and the contents of a horoscope. Forer's demonstration[edit] On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.26 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Only after the ratings were turned in was it revealed that each student had received an identical sketch assembled by Forer from a newsstand astrology book.[2] The sketch contains statements that are vague and general enough to most people. In another study examining the Forer effect, students took the MMPI personality assessment and researchers evaluated their responses. The Forer effect is also known as the "Barnum effect". Repeating the study[edit] Variables influencing the effect[edit] Recent research[edit]

The Dark Side of Oxytocin, the Hormone of Love - Ethnocentrism Yes, you knew there had to be a catch. As oxytocin comes into sharper focus, its social radius of action turns out to have definite limits. The love and trust it promotes are not toward the world in general, just toward a person’s in-group. Oxytocin turns out to be the hormone of the clan, not of universal brotherhood. A principal author of the new take on oxytocin is Carsten K. In a report published last year in Science, based on experiments in which subjects distributed money, he and colleagues showed that doses of oxytocin made people more likely to favor the in-group at the expense of an out-group. These nationalities were chosen because of a 2005 poll that showed that 51 percent of Dutch citizens held unfavorable opinions about Muslims, and other surveys that Germans, although seen by the Dutch as less threatening, were nevertheless regarded as “aggressive, arrogant and cold.” Well-socialized Dutch students might be unlikely to say anything derogatory about other groups. In Dr.

Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their competence or incompetence.[1] As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Definition[edit] Original study[edit] Later studies[edit] Popular recognition[edit]