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Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), beginning in 1952 as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics.[6] Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in 1953 incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey.[7][8] A large number of organizations overseeing the application of Scientology have been established,[28] the most notable of these being the Church of Scientology. Scientology sponsors a variety of social-service programs.[28][29] These include the Narconon anti-drug program, the Criminon prison rehabilitation program, the Study Tech education methodology, the Volunteer Ministers, the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, and a set of moral guidelines expressed in a booklet called The Way to Happiness.[30] Scientology is one of the most controversial new religious movements to have arisen in the 20th century. Etymology and earlier usage History Dianetics L. Related:  New Religious movements

List of religions and spiritual traditions Religious symbols in clock-wise order: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Baha'i, Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Rodnoveri, Celtic pagan, Heathenism, Semitic pagan, Wicca, Kemetism, Hellenic pagan, Roman pagan. Abrahamic religions[edit] A group of monotheistic traditions sometimes grouped with one another for comparative purposes, because all refer to a patriarch named Abraham. Babism[edit] Azali Bahá'í Faith[edit] Christianity[edit] Western Christianity Eastern Christianity Other groups related to Christianity[edit] Some of these groups consider themselves to be Christian, or to be derived from Christianity, but they are considered heterodox or heretical by mainstream Christianity. Gnosticism[edit] Many Gnostic groups were closely related to early Christianity, for example, Valentinism. Cerdonians (no longer extant)Colorbasians (no longer extant)Simonians (no longer extant)Bogomils (no longer extant)Cathars (no longer extant) The Yazidis are a syncretic Kurdish religion with a Gnostic influence:

Applied Scholastics Applied Scholastics is a non-profit corporation founded in 1972 to promote the use of study techniques created by L. Ron Hubbard the founder of the Church of Scientology. Hubbard called his theories on learning and education "study technology." Applied Scholastics' declared mission is: "to promote and develop programs of effective education for educators, business trainers, tutors, parents, children and people in all walks of life who need improved study skills to enhance their scholastic, business and personal activities." It is regarded by critics as a front group for the Church of Scientology.[2] It is a member organization of the Clear Expansion Committee. Study Tech[edit] Study Tech is a teaching methodology developed by L Ron Hubbard. Students are taught that "Misunderstood Words" are the cause of all confusion or misunderstanding. Applied Scholastics licenses Study tech to a number of schools throughout the world. Criticism and controversy[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit]

Noahidism The rainbow is a modern symbol of Noahidism. Noahidism ((/ˈnoʊə.haɪd.ɪsm/); alternatively Noachidism (/ˈnoʊə.xaɪd.ɪsm/)) is a monotheistic ideology based on the Seven Laws of Noah, and on their traditional interpretations within Rabbinic Judaism. According to Jewish law, non-Jews are not obligated to convert to Judaism, but they are required to observe the Seven Laws of Noah. If they accept and fulfill these commandments with the conviction that Yahweh commanded them in the Torah as transmitted by Moses, and are careful to observe them in accordance with the relevant details within the Torah law, they are assured of a place in the World to Come (Olam Haba), the final reward of the righteous.[1][2] The Divinely ordained penalty for violating any of these Noahide Laws is discussed in the Talmud, but in practical terms that is subject to the working legal system that is established by the society at large. Noahic covenant[edit] Maimonides[edit] The Seven Laws of Noah[edit] See also[edit]

Umbanda Umbanda (Portuguese pronunciation: [ũˈbɐ̃dɐ]) is a Brazilian religion that blends African religions with Catholicism, Spiritism, and considerable indigenous lore. Umbanda is related to, and has many similarities with, other Afro-Brazilian religions like Candomblé and Quimbanda, but has its own identity. Although some of its beliefs and most of its practices existed in the late 19th century in almost all Brazil, it is assumed that Umbanda originated in Rio de Janeiro and surrounding areas in the early 20th century, mainly due to the work of a psychic (medium), Zélio Fernandino de Moraes, who practiced Umbanda among the poor Afro-Brazilian population. Since then, Umbanda has spread across mainly southern Brazil and neighboring countries like Uruguay and Argentina. Umbanda has many branches, each one with a different set of beliefs and practices. Basic beliefs and practices[edit] The Umbanda creeds and practices are an eclectic mixture from three main sources: Three principal items[edit] 1.

Travolta Hospitalized With Critically Low E-Meter Reading LOS ANGELES--Actor John Travolta was rushed to UCLA Medical Center Monday with a near-fatal tone-scale reading of 0.5, or "grief." Travolta, who has since been upgraded to 2.5, or "boredom," was quickly revived by emergency-room technicians, attending physician Stephen Citarella said. "Mr. Travolta, star of Perfect and Staying Alive, was at home at approximately 10 a.m. when he reported feeling faint. Doctors are still uncertain as to what caused the longtime Clear's condition to deteriorate so rapidly. "It is quite a puzzle," UCLA Medical Center chief of staff Ronald Offerman said. "This is more serious than mere overts and withholds," UCLA's Dr. Travolta's hospitalization has sparked an outpouring of support: The star has received thousands of cards, flowers and letters from concerned fans and fellow celebrities, including Tom Cruise, Kirstie Alley, Chick Corea and internationally renowned rock bassist Billy Sheehan. While many experts believe Travolta's illness is engram-related, Dr.

Pantheism Pantheism is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity,[1] or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God.[2] Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god.[3] Some Eastern religions are considered to be pantheistically inclined. Definitions[edit] Pantheism is derived from the Greek roots pan (meaning "all") and theos (meaning "God"). There are a variety of definitions of pantheism. As a religious position, some describe pantheism as the polar opposite of atheism.[5] From this standpoint, pantheism is the view that everything is part of an all-encompassing, immanent God.[2] All forms of reality may then be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it.[7] Others hold that pantheism is a non-religious philosophical position. History[edit] The philosophy of Baruch Spinoza is often regarded as pantheism, although he did not use that term.[4][23] Recent developments[edit] "Mr.

Criminon "Second Chance", another prison-based rehabilitation program for prisoners, is closely related to Criminon, from which it licenses the techniques and materials used in its program.[2] Criminon is said to be a prison-based version of Narconon, as the Purification Rundown detoxification and training procedures are also parts of the program.[4] Criminon's program[edit] The program has used correspondence materials to treat hundreds of prisoners at the high security California State Prison, Corcoran, beginning in 1990.[5] Criminon is administered by the Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE), a nonprofit organization that administers Criminon, Narconon, and other "social betterment" programs.[6] The program includes courses with questions requiring written answers. Criminon is also available under the name Second Chance, which licenses the Criminon materials. Controversies[edit] Criminon has also been criticized for promoting Scientology's hostile view of psychiatry. See also[edit]

Unitarian Universalism Unitarian Universalism[2][3][4] is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".[5][6] Unitarian Universalists do not share a creed but are unified by their shared search for spiritual growth. The roots of Unitarian Universalism (UU) are in liberal Christianity, specifically Unitarianism and Universalism. Unitarian Universalists state that from these traditions comes a deep regard for intellectual freedom and inclusive love, so that congregations and members seek inspiration and derive insight from all major world religions.[7] The theology of individual Unitarian Universalists ranges widely, including atheism, agnosticism, pantheism, deism, Judaism, Islam,[8] Christianity, neopaganism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and many more.[9] The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was formed in 1961, a consolidation of the American Unitarian Association, established in 1825, and the Universalist Church of America,[10] established in 1866. Susan B.

Abraham ibn Ezra Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (Hebrew: אברהם אבן עזרא or ראב"ע, Arabic ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra) (1089–1164) was born at Tudela, Navarre (now in Spain[1]) in 1089,[2] and died c. 1167, apparently in Calahorra.[3] He was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. Ibn Ezra excelled in philosophy, astronomy/astrology, mathematics, poetry, linguistics, and exegesis; he was called The Wise, The Great and The Admirable Doctor. He was born at Tudela,[citation needed] (in the present-day province of Navarre) when the town was under the Muslim rule of the emirs of Zaragoza. Works[edit] The Book Exodus with the commentary of Abraham ibn Ezra,Naples 1488 At several of the above-named places, Ibn Ezra remained for some time and developed a rich literary activity. Of greater original value than the grammatical works of Ibn Ezra are his commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, of which, however, the Books of Chronicles have been lost. [edit]