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William James

William James
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States,[2] James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology".[3][4][5] Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the greatest figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of the functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James, and the diarist Alice James. Early life[edit] Career[edit] Writings[edit] Related:  Thoughtminds

Pragmatic theory of truth A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. Pragmatic theories of truth were first posited by Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. The common features of these theories are a reliance on the pragmatic maxim as a means of clarifying the meanings of difficult concepts such as truth; and an emphasis on the fact that belief, certainty, knowledge, or truth is the result of an inquiry. Background[edit] Pragmatic theories of truth developed from the earlier ideas of ancient philosophy, the Scholastics, and Immanuel Kant. Logic and inquiry[edit] Most inquiries into the character of truth begin with a notion of an informative, meaningful, or significant element, the truth of whose information, meaning, or significance may be put into question and needs to be evaluated. Judging what is true[edit] Truth predicates[edit] In formal logic, this number is called the arity of the predicate. Peirce[edit] James[edit]

The Open Society and Its Enemies The Open Society and Its Enemies is a two-volume work on political philosophy by Karl Popper. Written during World War II, it failed to find a publisher in the United States and was first printed in London by Routledge in 1945. The book was published in Russia in 1992.[1] Popper criticises theories of teleological historicism in which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws, and indicts as totalitarian Plato, Hegel and Marx for relying on historicism to underpin their political philosophies. The work was on the Modern Library Board's 100 Best Nonfiction books of the 20th century.[2] Publication[edit] A veritable who's who of philosophy and the social sciences were involved in its path to publication, as Popper was writing in academic obscurity in New Zealand for the duration of World War II. Synopsis[edit] In The Open Society and Its Enemies, Popper developed a critique of historicism and a defense of the open society, liberal democracy. Legacy[edit] See also[edit]

Le Temps Imaginaire Frank Smith, docteur en épistémologie, est l’auteur d’une thèse intitulée : les enjeux politiques de la vulgarisation scientifique. Il analyse l’évolution des rapports entre l’expérience et la science pour ensuite envisager la vérité scientifique à la lumière des différentes lectures possibles des inégalités de Heisenberg. Les théories scientifiques ne sont-elles que des inventions de l’esprit humain libre d’interpréter les faits à sa guise ou relèvent-elles d’une réalité objective qui serait découverte ? Dès lors, sommes-nous réduits à l’alternative qui consiste à faire de la science un argument d’autorité ou, étant donné le caractère nécessairement provisoire des théories, à leur dénier toute prétention à décrire la réalité ? Il est traditionnel d’opposer la vérité aux interprétations. Cette opposition est aussi celle de l’unicité et de la multiplicité. D’abord, la première chose que l’on peut noter est qu’il est déjà arrivé que la science se soit trompée. Conclusion

Critical rationalism Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, The Open Society and its Enemies Volume 2, and Conjectures and Refutations. Criticism, not support[edit] Critical rationalists hold that scientific theories and any other claims to knowledge can and should be rationally criticized, and (if they have empirical content) can and should be subjected to tests which may falsify them. However, this contrastive, critical approach to objective knowledge is quite different from more traditional views that also hold knowledge to be objective. Supposed positive evidence (such as the provision of "good reasons" for a claim, or its having been "corroborated" by making successful predictions) actually does nothing to bolster, support, or prove a claim, belief, or theory. In this sense, critical rationalism turns the normal understanding of a traditional rationalist, and a realist, on its head. Not justificationism[edit] 1.

Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi. He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling.[1] Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube (variously translated as faith or "belief") and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] He was born at Düsseldorf, the second son of a wealthy sugar merchant, and was educated for a commercial career, which included a brief apprenticeship at a merchant house in Frankfurt-am-Main during 1759. Pantheism controversy[edit] Later life[edit] Atheism Dispute[edit] Thought[edit] Works[edit] Notes[edit]

Alfred North Whitehead In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics. His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–13), which he co-wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library.[44] Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us Life[edit] Whewell's Court north range at Trinity College, Cambridge. Bertrand Russell in 1907. Toward the end of his time in England, Whitehead turned his attention to philosophy. The Whiteheads spent the rest of their lives in the United States. Mathematics and logic[edit] Principia Mathematica[edit]

Jon Haidt's Home Page I study morality and emotion, and how they vary across cultures. I am also active in positive psychology (the scientific study of human flourishing) and study positive emotions such as moral elevation, admiration, and awe. In 2011 I moved to the NYU-Stern School of Business, where I am a professor in the Business and Society Program. Stern has offered me the opportunity to test and apply my research on moral psychology. I'm working with economists and other social scientists to figure out how to make businesses, non-profits, cities, and other systems work more efficiently and ethically by doing ethical systems design My research in recent years focused on the moral foundations of politics, and on ways to transcend the “culture wars” by using recent discoveries in moral psychology to foster more civil forms of politics. To live virtuously as individuals and as societies, we must understand how our minds are built (see ch. 1 of The Happiness Hypothesis, and Part I of The Righteous Mind).

Karl Popper Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[4] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British[5] philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics.[6] He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.[7][8] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. If the outcome of an experiment contradicts the theory, one should refrain from ad hoc manoeuvres that evade the contradiction merely by making it less falsifiable. Personal life[edit] Family and training[edit] Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902, to upper middle-class parents. He worked in street construction for a short amount of time, but was unable to cope with the heavy labour. Academic life[edit] Honours and awards[edit]

An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments Who is winning the 'crypto-war'? 15 March 2014Last updated at 20:12 ET By Gordon Corera Security correspondent, BBC News In the war over encryption between the NSA and privacy activists, who is winning? Ladar Levison sits exhausted, slumped on a sofa with his dog Princess on his lap. He is surrounded by boxes after he moved into a new house in the suburbs of Dallas, Texas, the previous day. He describes his new home as a "monastery for programmers". Levison and co-workers plan to live and work there as they create a new email service which will allow people to communicate entirely securely and privately. It is a new email service because Levison himself shut down his old one - called Lavabit - after a visit from the FBI. It began with a business card in May of last year. A tussle with the FBI led to a court ordering Levison to hand over the keys to his email service. Levison knew that it would take time for the FBI to input the keys and that gave him the chance to shut down his entire system. What is encryption?

The hard problem “I THINK, therefore I am.” René Descartes’ aphorism has become a cliché. But it cuts to the core of perhaps the greatest question posed to science: what is consciousness? The other phenomena described in this series of briefs—time and space, matter and energy, even life itself—look tractable. In reality, it is unlikely that even those who advance this proposition truly believe it, as far as their fellow humans are concerned. Moreover, consciousness is not merely a property of having a complex, active brain, for it can vanish temporarily, even while the brain is healthy and functional. A lot of brain science relies on looking at brains that are broken. Blindsight is occasionally found in those whose blindness is caused by damage to the visual cortex of the brain, perhaps by a stroke or tumour, rather than by damage to the eyes or optic nerves. A dip in the stream of consciousness Yet another neural correlate of consciousness is the temporoparietal junction. And yet.

Polysemy Charles Fillmore and Beryl Atkins’ definition stipulates three elements: (i) the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin, (ii) the links between these senses form a network, and (iii) understanding the ‘inner’ one contributes to understanding of the ‘outer’ one.[3] Polysemy is a pivotal concept within disciplines such as media studies and linguistics. Polysemes[edit] A polyseme is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. Since the test for polysemy is the vague concept of relatedness, judgments of polysemy can be difficult to make. In vertical polysemy a word refers to a member of a subcategory (e.g., 'dog' for 'male dog').[4] A closely related idea is metonym, in which a word with one original meaning is used to refer to something else connected to it. Examples[edit] Man The human species (i.e., man vs. animal)Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman)Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy) Mole Bank Book Newspaper The newspaper fired its editor.

People - Charles Fernyhough Charles Fernyhough appears in the following: Voices in Your Head Tuesday, September 07, 2010 By Radiolab In this podcast, Jad talks to Charles Fernyhough about the connection between thought and the voice in your head. Read More ListenAddDownload Words that Change the World Susan Schaller believes that the best idea she ever had in her life had to do with an isolated young man she met one day at a community college. Words

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