background preloader

William James

William James
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States,[2] James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology".[3][4][5] Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the greatest figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of the functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James, and the diarist Alice James. Early life[edit] Career[edit] Writings[edit]

Creative Evolution (book) Creative Evolution (French: L'Évolution créatrice) is a 1907 book by French philosopher Henri Bergson. Its English translation appeared in 1911. The book provides an alternate explanation for Darwin's mechanism of evolution, suggesting that evolution is motivated by an élan vital, a "vital impetus" that can also be understood as humanity's natural creative impulse. The book was very popular in the early decades of the twentieth century, before the Neodarwinian synthesis was developed.[citation needed] Harvard philosopher William James intended to write the introduction to the English translation of the book, but died in 1910 prior to its completion. Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution (1911) tr. Emergent evolution

PHILOSOPHY AND THE SCIENTIFIC IMAGE OF MAN Wilfrid Sellars Published in Frontiers of Science and Philosophy, edited by Robert Colodny (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1962): 35-78. Reprinted in Science, Perception and Reality (1963). The aim of philosophy, abstractly formulated, is to understand how things in the broadest possible sense of the term hang together in the broadest possible sense of the term. Under 'things in the broadest possible sense' I include such radically different items as not only 'cabbages and kings', but numbers and duties, possibilities and finger snaps, aesthetic experience and death. To achieve success in philosophy would be, to use a contemporary turn of phrase, to 'know one's way around' with respect to all these things, not in that unreflective way in which the centipede of the story knew its way around before it faced the question, 'how do I walk?' Knowing one's way around is, to use a current distinction, a form of 'knowing how' as contrasted with 'knowing that'.

Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (/ˈpɜrs/,[9] like "purse", September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist, sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years. Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics, and for his founding of pragmatism. An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician. He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science. He saw logic as the formal branch of semiotics, of which he is a founder. Life[edit] Peirce's birthplace. Peirce suffered from his late teens onward from a nervous condition then known as "facial neuralgia", which would today be diagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia.

Theodosius Dobzhansky Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky ForMemRS[1] (Ukrainian: Теодосій Григорович Добжанський; January 24, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the unifying modern evolutionary synthesis.[2] Dobzhansky was born in Ukraine and emigrated to the United States as a young man in 1927. He published a major work of the modern evolutionary synthesis, Genetics and the Origin of Species, in 1937. He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1964,[3] and the Franklin Medal in 1973. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Dobzhansky was born on January 24, 1900 in Nemyriv, Ukraine. On August 8, 1924, Dobzhansky married geneticist Natalia "Natasha" Sivertzeva who was working with I. Before moving to the USA, Dobzhansky published 35 scientific works on entomology, genetics and zootechnique. America[edit] In 1970, he published Genetics of the evolutionary process.[9] Religious beliefs[edit]

Transhumanist Values 1. What is Transhumanism?Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades.[1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.The enhancement options being discussed include radical extension of human health-span, eradication of disease, elimination of unnecessary suffering, and augmentation of human intellectual, physical, and emotional capacities. Other transhumanist themes include space colonization and the possibility of creating superintelligent machines, along with other potential developments that could profoundly alter the human condition.

George Herbert Mead George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded as one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general. Biography[edit] Mead was born February 27, 1863 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. He was raised in a Protestant, middle-class family comprising his father, Hiram Mead, his mother, Elizabeth Storrs (Billings) Mead, and his sister Alice. His father was a former Congregationalist pastor from a lineage of farmers and clergymen and who later held the chair in Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology at Oberlin College’s theological seminary. In autumn 1887, Mead enrolled at Harvard University, where his main interests were philosophy and psychology. Writings[edit] In his lifetime,Mead published about 100 scholarly articles, reviews, and incidental pieces. Social philosophy (behaviorism)[edit]

Books by Jean Klein DIALOGUES BETWEEN JEAN KLEIN and his students and friends, during recent seminars in the United States and Europe, form the text of this illuminating book. In many different settings and circumstances, Jean Klein casts and re-casts the teaching of Advaita, addressing each individual in his or her own uniqueness, while at the same time demonstrating the oneness of being. These far-reaching exchanges - exploring almost every aspect of self-knowledge - show that it is only through living fully in "not knowing" that we can awaken to our real nature: the "I AM" of pure consciousness. In addition, Jean Klein discusses for the first time his early life, his meetings with his teacher in India, and the moment of his awakening. The result is an inspiring prologue that not only gives us an intimate look at this remarkable teacher and the discoveries he made in his search for truth, but also makes clear the immediate accessibility of these discoveries to every earnest seeker.

Andy Clark General themes in Clark's work[edit] Clark’s work explores a number of disparate but interrelated themes. Many of these themes run against established wisdom in cognitive processing and representation. According to traditional computational accounts, the function of the mind is understood as the process of creating, storing and updating internal representations of the world, on the basis of which other processes and actions may take place. The Extended Mind[edit] Clark is perhaps most well known for his defence of the hypothesis of the extended mind. Clark concedes that, in practice, the criterion of "equal efficiency"[citation needed] required by the parity principle is seldom met. Clark foresees the development of cognitive prosthetics, or "electronic brain enhancements" ("EBEs"), as only[citation needed] the next logical step in the human mind’s natural integration with technology. Bibliography[edit] Books by Andy Clark: Clark is also on the editorial boards of the following journals:

Hubert Dreyfus Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (born October 15, 1929) is an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. Dreyfus is featured in Tao Ruspoli's film Being in the World. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and is a recipient of the Harbison Prize for Outstanding Teaching at UC Berkeley.[2] Erasmus University awarded Dreyfus an honorary doctorate "for his brilliant and highly influential work in the field of artificial intelligence, and for his equally outstanding contributions to the analysis and interpretation of twentieth century continental philosophy".[3][4] Background[edit] In 1965, while teaching at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dreyfus published "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence", an attack on the work of Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon, two of the leading researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Dreyfus's criticism of AI[edit] But it is this key assumption that Dreyfus denies.

Walden III: In Search of a Utopian Nirvana (9780967036267): Stephen Wolinsky Human enhancement and the future of work report 07 November 2012 The Human enhancement and the future of work project explored potential enhancements arising from advances in science and engineering that are likely to impact on the future of work. Key messages identified by participants at a workshop in March 2012 included: Enhancement technologies could change how people work. Work will evolve over the next decade, with enhancement technologies potentially making a significant contribution. Widespread use of enhancements might influence an individual’s ability to learn or perform tasks and perhaps even to enter a profession; influence motivation; enable people to work in more extreme conditions or into old age, reduce work-related illness; or facilitate earlier return to work after illness. The report of the workshop is a record of the discussion that took place at the event, and does not necessarily reflect the policy of the academies.

Jürgen Habermas Biography[edit] Habermas was born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, in 1929. He was born with a cleft palate and had corrective surgery twice during childhood.[4] Habermas argues that his speech disability made him think differently about the importance of communication and prefer writing over the spoken word as a medium.[5] From 1956 on, he studied philosophy and sociology under the critical theorists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno at the Goethe University Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, but because of a rift between the two over his dissertation—Horkheimer had made unacceptable demands for revision—as well as his own belief that the Frankfurt School had become paralyzed with political skepticism and disdain for modern culture[6]—he finished his habilitation in political science at the University of Marburg under the Marxist Wolfgang Abendroth. Habermas then returned to his chair at Frankfurt and the directorship of the Institute for Social Research. Teacher and mentor[edit]

Donna Fenn | Upstarts! | Books 25.00 | Hardcover | September 2009 McGraw-HIll How GenY Entrepreneurs are Rocking the World of Business and 8 Ways You Can Profit from Their Success Generation Y is starting companies at an unprecedented rate, and their approach to business is unlike anything you’ve seen. Inc. magazine contributing editor Donna Fenn interviewed more than 150 young CEOs to learn what makes them tick. Upstarts! The sooner you adapt to the new way of business, the greater chance you have to grow and profit in the years ahead. Building collaborative tribesDeploying technology for competitive advantageDisrupting the status quoDeconstructing the GenY marketGenerating branding buzzLeveraging social missionCreating dynamic workplaces Morphing and growing strategically Misreading GenY companies could be the biggest business mistake you ever make.