Genetic engineering Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. IUPAC definition Note: Adapted from ref. Definition Genetically modified organisms History
IBM Chip ‘Senses’ Events to React Like Brain International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) has developed a computer chip inspired by the human brain that may predict tsunamis and highlight risks in financial markets. The technology, called cognitive computing, is programmed to recognize patterns, make predictions and learn from mistakes, human-like capabilities not possible using today’s best computers. It’s a sharp departure from traditional chip design concepts, IBM said in a statement today. Systems built with the new chip can synthesize events currently occurring and make decisions in real time, the Armonk, New York-based company said. Sponsored by the U.S. “We’re inventing a new system, changing the game,” Dharmendra Modha, the project’s leader, said in an interview. While current computers handle commands individually on a linear if/then basis, Modha said machines equipped with the new chips will “rewire themselves on the fly.” Reacting to Surroundings Potential Uses
list of current items Evolution machine: Genetic engineering on fast forward - life - 27 June 2011 Read full article Continue reading page |1|2|3|4 Automated genetic tinkering is just the start – this machine could be used to rewrite the language of life and create new species of humans IT IS a strange combination of clumsiness and beauty. Sitting on a cheap-looking worktop is a motley ensemble of flasks, trays and tubes squeezed onto a home-made frame. Say hello to the evolution machine. These days everything from your food and clothes to the medicines you take may well come from genetically modified plants or bacteria. Grand ambitions Yet changing even a handful of genes takes huge amounts of time and money. The task is so difficult and time-consuming because biological systems are so complex. Many biologists think the answer is to try to eliminate the guesswork. The basic idea is hardly original; various forms of directed evolution are already used to design things as diverse as proteins and boats. New Scientist Not just a website! More From New Scientist Is full-fat milk best?
things we can grow Craig Venter creates synthetic life form | Science Scientists have created the world's first synthetic life form in a landmark experiment that paves the way for designer organisms that are built rather than evolved. The controversial feat, which has occupied 20 scientists for more than 10 years at an estimated cost of $40m, was described by one researcher as "a defining moment in biology". Craig Venter, the pioneering US geneticist behind the experiment, said the achievement heralds the dawn of a new era in which new life is made to benefit humanity, starting with bacteria that churn out biofuels, soak up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and even manufacture vaccines. However critics, including some religious groups, condemned the work, with one organisation warning that artificial organisms could escape into the wild and cause environmental havoc or be turned into biological weapons. "We were ecstatic when the cells booted up with all the watermarks in place," Dr Venter told the Guardian.
Genetic Enhancement - definition Genetic Enhancement In general, genetic enhancement refers to the transfer of genetic material intended to modify nonpathological human traits. The term commonly is used to describe efforts to make someone not just well, but better than well, by optimizing attributes or capabilities -- perhaps by raising an individual from standard to peak levels of performance. When the goal is enhancement, the gene may supplement the functioning of normal genes or may be superseded with genes that have been engineered to produce a desired enhancement. Furthermore, gene insertion may be intended to affect a single individual through somatic cell modification, or it may target the gametes, in which case the resulting effect could be passed on to succeeding generations. In a sense, the concept of genetic enhancement is not particularly recent if one considers genetically engineered drug products used to alter physical traits as genetic enhancements. Animal Models and Possibilities for Human Application
Digital Tattoo Gets Under Your Skin to Monitor Blood | Gadget Lab Bioengineering doctoral student Kate Balaconis shines the iPhone reader against her tattooless arm. Maybe tattoos aren’t just for Harley riders or rebellious teens after all. In a few years, diabetics might get inked up with digital tats that communicate with an iPhone to monitor their blood. Instead of the dye used for tribal arm bands and Chinese characters, these tattoos will contain nanosensors that read the wearer’s blood levels of sodium, glucose and even alcohol with the help of an iPhone 4 camera. Dr. “I had no idea how much to drink, or when,” said Clark, reflecting on her marathon run. Clark’s technology could spell out the eventual demise of the painful finger pricks required for blood tests — assuming users have an iPhone, which Northeastern bioengineering grad student Matt Dubach has customized to read light from the tiny sensors to collect and output data. Within the implant, certain nanoparticles will bind exclusively to specific blood contents, like sodium or glucose.
enhancement DNA circuits used to make neural network, store memories Even as some scientists and engineers develop improved versions of current computing technology, others are looking into drastically different approaches. DNA computing offers the potential of massively parallel calculations with low power consumption and at small sizes. Research in this area has been limited to relatively small systems, but a group from Caltech recently constructed DNA logic gates using over 130 different molecules and used the system to calculate the square roots of numbers. Now, the same group published a paper in Nature that shows an artificial neural network, consisting of four neurons, created using the same DNA circuits. The artificial neural network approach taken here is based on the perceptron model, also known as a linear threshold gate. As we described in the last article on this approach to DNA computing, the authors represent their implementation with an abstraction called "seesaw" gates.
Engineering News at NC State November 15, 2004 You can hear the excitement in Dr. Karen J.L. Burg’s voice — and for good reason. Her innovative research with injectable transplants may one day provide a more natural and minimally invasive surgical alternative for breast-cancer survivors. Burg (ChE ’90), associate professor of bioengineering at Clemson University, conducts most of her research as director of the University’s Tissue Engineering Laboratory. According to Burg, the technique would reduce scarring, help restore the breast’s natural shape and promote quicker surgical recoveries than would traditional reconstructions. “I know so many women that have had breast cancer,” Burg said. After earning her PhD in bioengineering at Clemson University, Burg researched tissue engineering at Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. “I was able to shadow him and see the human side of things. — pishney — / Inner Views Index / Inner Views Archives Index /