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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim). It is the state religion of Bhutan.[2] It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast China. Religious texts and commentaries are contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon such that Tibetan is a spiritual language of these areas. The Tibetan diaspora has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained popularity.[3] Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Buddhahood[edit] General methods of practice[edit] Transmission and realization[edit] Analytic meditation and fixation meditation[edit] Spontaneous realization on the basis of transmission is possible but rare. Related:  Music Theory

Esotericism Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs,[1] that is, ideas preserved or understood by a small group of those specially initiated, or of rare or unusual interest.[2] The term derives from the Greek, either from the comparative ἐσώτερος (esôteros), "inner", or from its derived adjective ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos), "pertaining to the innermost".[3] The term can also refer to the academic study of esoteric religious movements and philosophies, or to the study of those religious movements and philosophies whose proponents distinguish their beliefs, practices, and experiences from mainstream exoteric and more dogmatic institutionalized traditions.[4] Although esotericism refers to an exploration of the hidden meanings and symbolism in various philosophical, historical, and religious texts, the texts themselves are often central to mainstream religions. For example, the Bible and the Torah are considered esoteric material.[7] Etymology[edit] Definition[edit]

The Science Of Binaural Beat Brainwave Entrainment Technology - for meditation relaxation stress management and achieving altered states of consciousness What are Binaural Beats? The Discovery Of Binaural Beats Altered States Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems How it works on the brain Synchronized brain waves The "frequency-following response" effect. Various Uses Of Audio With Embedded Binaural Beats Resetting Your Brains Sodium/Potassium Ratio In Theta Top What Are Binaural Beats? Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses which originate in the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere. Top The "frequency-following response" effect. The binaural-beat appears to be associated with an electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency-following response in the brain(3). Various Uses Of Audio With Embedded Binaural Beats Uses of audio with embedded binaural beats that are mixed with music or various pink or background sound are diverse. Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems is a well-understood principle within the physical sciences. The Discovery Of Binaural Beats How It Works On The Brain

Dzogchen According to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen (Rdzogs chen or Atiyoga) is the natural, primordial state or natural condition, and a body of teachings and meditation practices aimed at realizing that condition. Dzogchen, or "Great Perfection", is a central teaching of the Nyingma school also practiced by adherents of other Tibetan Buddhist sects. According to Dzogchen literature, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path to enlightenment.[1] From the perspective of Dzogchen, the ultimate nature of all sentient beings is said to be pure, all-encompassing, primordial clarity or naturally occurring timeless clarity. This intrinsic clarity has no form of its own and yet is capable of perceiving, experiencing, reflecting, or expressing all form. It does so without being affected by those forms in any ultimate, permanent way. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] Maha Ati[edit] Esoteric transmission[edit] Background[edit] Indian originators[edit] Prahevajra (Tib. Tibet[edit] Padmasambhava (Tib.

Religion in Tibet The main religion of Tibet has been Buddhism since its outspread in the 8th century AD. Before the arrival of Buddhism the main religion here was an indigenous Shamanist religion, Bön which now comprises a sizeable minority and which would later influence the formation of Tibetan Buddhism. There are four mosques in the Tibet Autonomous Region with approximately 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim adherents, as well as a Catholic church with 560 parishioners, which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the eastern TAR.[1] Buddhism[edit] Buddhism came to Tibet from India in the 7th — 8th centuries A.D. and gradually, though not without difficulties, started to prevail in this region.[2] With the influence of the indigenous Bon religion, the Tibetan Buddhism was formed. Bön[edit] Hinduism[edit] Christianity[edit] It is not known whether Odoric of Pordenone may have entered Tibet. Islam[edit] Freedom of religion[edit] References[edit]

Karmapa and Karma Kagyu Tradition Eleusinian Mysteries Votive plaque depicting elements of the Eleusinian Mysteries, discovered in the sanctuary at Eleusis (mid-4th century BC) The rites, ceremonies, and beliefs were kept secret and consistently preserved from a hoary antiquity. The initiated believed that they would have a reward in the afterlife.[5] There are many paintings and pieces of pottery that depict various aspects of the Mysteries. Since the Mysteries involved visions and conjuring of an afterlife, some scholars believe that the power and longevity of the Eleusinian Mysteries came from psychedelic agents.[6] Mythology of Demeter and Persephone[edit] The Mysteries are related to a myth concerning Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fertility as recounted in one of the Homeric Hymns (c. 650 BC). According to the myth, during her search Demeter traveled long distances and had many minor adventures along the way. Mysteries[edit] Participants[edit] To participate in these mysteries one had to swear a vow of secrecy. Secrets[edit]

Sacred geometry As worldview and cosmology[edit] The belief that God created the universe according to a geometric plan has ancient origins. Plutarch attributed the belief to Plato, writing that "Plato said God geometrizes continually" (Convivialium disputationum, liber 8,2). In modern times the mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss adapted this quote, saying "God arithmetizes".[2] At least as late as Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), a belief in the geometric underpinnings of the cosmos persisted among scientists. Closeup of inner section of the Kepler's Platonic solid model of planetary spacing in the Solar system from Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596) which ultimately proved to be inaccurate Natural forms[edit] Art and architecture[edit] Geometric ratios, and geometric figures were often employed in the design of Egyptian, ancient Indian, Greek and Roman architecture. In Hinduism[edit] Unanchored geometry[edit] Music[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] Further reading[edit] External links[edit] Sacred geometry at DMOZ

Vajrayana Vajrayāna (Sanskrit: वज्रयान, Bengali: বজ্রযান) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Way or Thunderbolt Way. The Lama and the Guru yoga are central in this system.[1] Vajrayāna is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries. Founded by Indian Mahāsiddhas, Vajrayāna subscribes to Buddhist tantric literature. History of Vajrayāna[edit] Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century and continued to appear until the 12th century, scholars such as Hirakawa Akira assert that the Vajrayāna probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century, while the term Vajrayāna itself first appeared in the 8th century. India[edit] Historical origins[edit] Mantrayana and Vajrayana[edit] There are differing theories as to where in the Indian sub-continent that Vajrayāna began. The earliest texts appeared around the early 4th century. China[edit]

Tibetan culture Tibetan Monk churning butter tea Tibetan culture developed under the influence of a number of factors. Contact with neighboring countries and cultures- including Nepal, India, and China–have influenced the development of Tibetan culture, but the Himalayan region's remoteness and inaccessibility have preserved distinct local influences. General Influences[edit] Buddhist missionaries who came mainly from Nepal and China introduced arts and customs from India and China. Tibetan art[edit] Tibetan art is deeply religious in nature, a form of sacred art. Mahayana Buddhist influence[edit] A common bodhisattva depicted in Tibetan art is the Chenrezig deity (Avalokitesvara), often portrayed as a thousand-armed saint with an eye in the middle of each hand, representing the all-seeing compassionate one who hears our requests. Tantric influence[edit] (known in Tibetan as the dorje). Bön influence[edit] The indigenous shamanistic religion of the Himalayas is known as Bön. Tibetan family life[edit]

Diamond Way Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is a religious and philosophical movement that developed during the late 1820s and '30s[1] in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest against the general state of spirituality and, in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. They believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupt the purity of the individual. They have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed. History[edit] Origins[edit] Transcendentalism is closely related to Unitarianism, the dominant religious movement in Boston at the early nineteenth century. Emerson's Nature[edit] So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes.

Related:  Philosophy