background preloader

How PGP works

How PGP works
How PGP works The following text is taken from chapter 1 of the document Introduction to Cryptography in the PGP 6.5.1 documentation. Copyright © 1990-1999 Network Associates, Inc. and its Affiliated Companies. All Rights Reserved. Converted from PDF to HTML at and then manually edited by hand. The Basics of Cryptography When Julius Caesar sent messages to his generals, he didn't trust his messengers. And so we begin. Encryption and decryption Data that can be read and understood without any special measures is called plaintext or cleartext. Figure 1-1. What is cryptography? Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. While cryptography is the science of securing data, cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking secure communication. Cryptology embraces both cryptography and cryptanalysis. Strong cryptography --Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. How does cryptography work? Keys Related:  NeWeb PrivacyEncryptionfyp research

Pretty Good Privacy Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a data encryption and decryption computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting texts, e-mails, files, directories, and whole disk partitions and to increase the security of e-mail communications. It was created by Phil Zimmermann in 1991 while working at PKWARE, Inc.[1] PGP and similar software follow the OpenPGP standard (RFC 4880) for encrypting and decrypting data. Design[edit] PGP encryption uses a serial combination of hashing, data compression, symmetric-key cryptography, and finally public-key cryptography; each step uses one of several supported algorithms. Compatibility[edit] As PGP evolves, versions that support newer features and algorithms are able to create encrypted messages that older PGP systems cannot decrypt, even with a valid private key. Confidentiality[edit] PGP can be used to send messages confidentially. Digital signatures[edit]

WHERE TO GET PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) Revised 17 June 2014 This FAQ applies to Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG), and some other OpenPGP implementations. Disclaimer: some of this information may be outdated or otherwise inaccurate. The master copies of this FAQ is at The official (much more complete) PGP FAQ is available at: PGPmail commercial version PGP Mail is now published and supported by PGP Corporation. [Top] The best source of PGP information is in the PGP documentation that comes with PGP. PGP 5.0 introduces some new algorithms for both public key and conventional encryption. The new SHA1 hash function is better than MD5, so signatures are more secure, now, too. The bad news, of course, is that there will be some interoperability problems, since no earlier versions of PGP can handle these algorithm, and some PGP freeware issued before the RSA algorithm math patent expired doesn't support RSA signatures and encryption. U. U. See: >[Top]

Encrypting & Decrypting Data Files by Using AES and RSA Algorithms | Alper Karatepe Weblog The following solution is developed to ensure encrypted communication during transferring of some data files (which includes secret information) from one point to another. Data files are encrypted before transferring and then after they arrived to target point they are decrypted to discover the secret information inside them. In order to protect and complicate capturing information inside data files as much as possible, a two-stage encryption is applied by using RSA and AES encryption standards. In this technique, 3 keys are required, one AES key (256-bit) and a public & private RSA key pair. Public & private key pair should be created by target point, private key must be saved in a secure place and public key should be sent to source side to encrypt AES key. NOTE: In order to use 256-bit AES keys, you need to download and install (if not installed yet) “Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files” from here. keyGen.init(256); fos.write(raw); fos.close(); 1.

WHERE TO GET PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) Revised 14 August 2002 This FAQ applies to Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG), and some other OpenPGP implementations. Disclaimer: some of this information may be outdated or otherwise inaccurate. I don't update it very often, but you should by all means be able to find an appropriate copy of PGP and its documentation using the information contained herein. The master copies of this FAQ are at and The official (much more complete) PGP FAQ is available at: PGP freeware - for personal, noncommercial use - The best source for the current versions. - A trustworthy source for North Americans. - Archives of older versions and versions for various platforms for North Americans. Gnu Privacy Guard - free even for commercial use PGPmail commercial version [Top] Yes. U. U. See: [Top] Yes and no. Yes.

▶ Use OpenPGP to encrypt your email messages and files in the cloud Putting sensitive data in email messages or cloud storage should give you the heebie-jeebies, but a good dose of cryptography can give you peace of mind. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) or its open-source implementation, OpenPGP, is the gold standard of encryption online, and when used properly, has the potential to thwart even the likes of the NSA. Encryption solutions like BitLocker and DiskCryptor don’t secure email messages or files in the cloud. OpenPGP's industrial-strength encryption can ensure secure delivery of files and messages, as well as provide verification of who created or sent the message using a process called digital signing. Using OpenPGP for communication requires participation by both the sender and recipient. The trade-off for all this protection is that it's a little more complicated to use. Installing gpg4win The OpenPGP-compatible Windows program we’ll use is gpg4win (GNU Privacy Guard for Windows). First, download and run the setup program. Creating the OpenPGP keys

SSL/TLS Strong Encryption: An Introduction - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.2 Available Languages: en | ja The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from. And if you really don't like all the standards you just have to wait another year until the one arises you are looking for. -- A. Tanenbaum, "Introduction to Computer Networks" As an introduction this chapter is aimed at readers who are familiar with the Web, HTTP, and Apache, but are not security experts. The presented content is mainly derived, with the author's permission, from the article Introducing SSL and Certificates using SSLeay by Frederick J. Cryptographic Techniques Understanding SSL requires an understanding of cryptographic algorithms, message digest functions (aka. one-way or hash functions), and digital signatures. Cryptographic Algorithms Suppose Alice wants to send a message to her bank to transfer some money. There are two categories of cryptographic algorithms: conventional and public key. Conventional cryptography Public key cryptography Message Digests message digest

If you’re worried about Uber and privacy, don’t forget Lyft and Sidecar Privacy concerns are front and center when it comes to Uber’s messy week, and a personal experience with the cavalier use of user data really brought that home for me. The Uber controversy is a perfect storm of conditions: Ethically questionable leadership, aggressive threats, and a company with powerful user data. Uber has your credit card details and information on where you travel at what times. That’s a scary thought, especially when you look up the lengths it has gone to thwart those who oppose it — like its competitor Lyft and existing taxi services. In the fall out from Emil Michael’s threats to dig up dirt on journalists, Uber has gotten a lot of tough privacy questions thrown its way. Uber has been rightfully targeted, because its “at-all-costs” business mentality is what makes the privacy issue scary, especially for those who might be on Uber’s blacklist. But what if that hadn’t been the case? The rideshare tracking issue brings that front and center.

The GNU Privacy Guard Anonymization of General Practioner Medical Records Amund | Amund Tveit found in traditional Norwegian Dictionaries bycounting their occurrences on all or a subset of Nor-wegian web sites. Step B – Exact Match and Tag In this and the following steps we focus on processing theunigram created from the free-text notes. Based on all thelocal and external dictionaries we create a combined diction-ary where one can look up words and get their correspondingtype(s), in order to achieve high computational performancefor dictionary lookups we use a suffix tree (also called a trie).We then proceed with looking up each word in the unigram inthe combined dictionary and if there is match add a type tag tothe word in the unigram, e.g. paracetamol </tag> and <tag type=surname> Olsen </tag>. There can also be words with multiple tags, e.g. bjørn In order to tag non-textual symbols such, e.g. dates, phonenumbers and social security numbers, we apply regular ex- pression matching.The Norwegian language, as opposed to the English, containsa significant amount of composite words. ”).

Making the University a Police State This weekend The Chronicle of Higher Education published an opinion piece by Michael Morris arguing that in the name of campus security campuses should start data mining all student internet traffic. Or as the not so subtle, fear mongering, almost fit for Fox News title says, “Mining Student Data Could Save Lives.” Morris’s article to put the matter bluntly is a phenomenally bad idea. Indeed his argument so ill conceived that it is difficult to know where to begin in exposing the problems. Let’s start by being clear on what Morris is calling for. In other words Morris is calling not for data mining, as his title suggests, but rather for total surveillance of all student internet activity with an eye towards mining that data. Technologically Morris doesn’t know what he is talking about and ethically he equates himself with some of the world’s most oppressive governments. Morris’s logic goes something like this. Let’s take these “justifications” one at a time.

DiskCryptor wiki Symptoms and Diseases Database : Free Open source PHP / Mysql Patients Records project - Goomedic.com Symptoms and Diseases Database (SADDB) is a web based application created to help doctors and clinic users to store patients data . disease and symptoms . Developer notice : Its very lightweight application created using RAD php code generator Appgini . Quick overview : Installation took less than a min from me , and it does not require Appgini , just LAMP ” Linux : Apache-MySQL-PHP ” with minimal configurations as well . Simple UI , it quite helpful but somehow its too simple to consider navigation as an important element for browsing a web based project . The user can add diseases , then adding symptoms and assign symptoms to the disease . an for patient after adding a patients details and creating a patient`s profile the user can assign symptoms ( not diseases ) to the patient . Installation instruction : • Extract the project in HTML directory ( or WWW ) directory at your server , • check your permission for directories and files , • run the installer . Download link .

Related: