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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification
NOAA provides evidence for upwelling of corrosive "acidified" water onto the Continental Shelf. In the figure above, note the vertical sections of (A) temperature, (B) aragonite saturation, (C) pH, (D) DIC, and (E) pCO2 on transect line 5 off Pt. St. George, California. Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.[2] An estimated 30–40% of the carbon dioxide released by humans into the atmosphere dissolves into oceans, rivers and lakes.[3][4] To achieve chemical equilibrium, some of it reacts with the water to form carbonic acid. Increasing acidity is thought to have a range of possibly harmful consequences, such as depressing metabolic rates and immune responses in some organisms, and causing coral bleaching. Other chemical reactions are triggered which result in a net decrease in the amount of carbonate ions available. Ocean acidification has occurred previously in Earth's history. Related:  Seas, Oceans & their Animals. (from Plankton to SharksSustainability

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Global Ocean Data Analysis Project The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis project bringing together oceanographic data collected during the 1990s by research cruises on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and Ocean-Atmosphere Exchange Study (OACES) programmes. The central goal of GLODAP is to generate a global climatology of the World Ocean's carbon cycle for use in studies of both its natural and anthropogenically-forced states. GLODAP is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dataset[edit] Additionally, analysis has attempted to separate natural from anthropogenic DIC, to produce fields of pre-industrial (18th century) DIC and "present day" anthropogenic CO2. Gallery[edit] The following panels show sea surface concentrations of the fields prepared by GLODAP. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] GLODAP website

Climate Change, Deforestation, Biomes and Ocean Currents, Plankton, Endangered Species - Earth Web Site Click for more detail Thermohaline Change Evidence is growing that the thermohaline current may be slowed or stopped by cold fresh water inputs to the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. This could occur if global warming is sufficient to cause large scale melting of arctic sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet. Such a change in the current may be gradual (over centuries) or very rapid (over a few years). Either would cause planet wide changes in climate. "Diatoms (a kind of phytoplankton) are estimated to "scrub" roughly as much CO2 from the atmosphere each year as all the world's rainforests. "Net primary productivity is the mass of plant material produced each year on land and in the oceans by photosynthesis using energy from sunlight. Biodiversity is the variety of life found at all levels of biological organization, ranging from individuals and populations to species, communities and ecosystems. Click for more detail What are they? Ecosystem and Biodiversity Text Sources: 1.

Why the world is running out of helium - Science - News Scientists have warned that the world's most commonly used inert gas is being depleted at an astonishing rate because of a law passed in the United States in 1996 which has effectively made helium too cheap to recycle. The law stipulates that the US National Helium Reserve, which is kept in a disused underground gas field near Amarillo, Texas – by far the biggest store of helium in the world – must all be sold off by 2015, irrespective of the market price. The experts warn that the world could run out of helium within 25 to 30 years, potentially spelling disaster for hospitals, whose MRI scanners are cooled by the gas in liquid form, and anti-terrorist authorities who rely on helium for their radiation monitors, as well as the millions of children who love to watch their helium-filled balloons float into the sky. Liquid helium is critical for cooling cooling infrared detectors, nuclear reactors and the machinery of wind tunnels. What helium is used for *Airships *MRI scanners *Rockets *Dating

Marine biology Only 29 percent of the world surface is land. The rest is ocean, home to the marine lifeforms. The oceans average nearly four kilometres in depth and are fringed with coastlines that run for 360,000 kilometres.[1][2] A large proportion of all life on Earth exists in the ocean. Exactly how large the proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. Marine life is a vast resource, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. Many species are economically important to humans, including food fish (both finfish and shellfish). History[edit] The observations made in the first studies of marine biology fueled the age of discovery and exploration that followed. The creation of marine labs was important because marine scientists had places to conduct research and process their specimens from expeditions. Subfields[edit] Related fields[edit] Animals[edit] Birds[edit] Fish[edit] Invertebrates[edit]

Carbonate compensation depth Calcite compensation depth (CCD) is the depth in the oceans below which the rate of supply of calcite (calcium carbonate) lags behind the rate of solvation, such that no calcite is preserved. Aragonite compensation depth (hence ACD) describes the same behaviour in reference to aragonitic carbonates. Aragonite is more soluble than calcite, so the aragonite compensation depth is generally shallower than the calcite compensation depth. Calcium carbonate is essentially insoluble in sea surface waters today. Shells of dead calcareous plankton sinking to deeper waters are practically unaltered until reaching the lysocline where the solubility increases dramatically. By the time the CCD is reached all calcium carbonate has dissolved according to this equation: Calcareous plankton and sediment particles can be found in the water column above the CCD. Variations in value of the CCD[edit] In the geological past the depth of the CCD has shown significant variation. See also[edit] References[edit]

HERMES: Hotspot Ecosystem Research on the Margins of European Seas HERMES - an international, multidisciplinary research programme investigating Europe's deep marine ecosystems and their environment Funded by the European Commission, HERMES brought together expertise in biodiversity, geology, sedimentology, physical oceanography, microbiology and biogeochemistry so to better understand the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. HERMES study sites extend from the Arctic to the Black Sea and include biodiversity hotspots such as cold seeps, cold-water coral mounds and reefs, canyons and anoxic environments, and communities found on open slopes. HERMES started work in April 2005, and ran for 4 years, with completion in March 2009.

Can civilisation reboot without fossil fuels? – Lewis Dartnell Imagine that the world as we know it ends tomorrow. There’s a global catastrophe: a pandemic virus, an asteroid strike, or perhaps a nuclear holocaust. The vast majority of the human race perishes. Our civilisation collapses. The post-apocalyptic survivors find themselves in a devastated world of decaying, deserted cities and roving gangs of bandits looting and taking by force. Bad as things sound, that’s not the end for humanity. Popular now Could we make our home on a rogue planet without a Sun? Should we be suspicious of the Anthropocene idea? What can we do to save the Universe from certain death? Let’s make the basis of this thought experiment a little more specific. So, would a society starting over on a planet stripped of its fossil fuel deposits have the chance to progress through its own Industrial Revolution? It’s easy to underestimate our current dependence on fossil fuels. In fact, the problem is even worse than that. But my topic here is not what we should do now. Related video

Macrocystis pyrifera Macrocystis pyrifera, commonly known as giant kelp or giant bladder kelp, is a species of kelp (large brown algae), and one of four species in the genus Macrocystis. Giant kelp is common along the coast of the eastern Pacific Ocean, from Baja California north to southeast Alaska, and is also found in the southern oceans near South America, South Africa, and Australia. Individual algae may grow to more than 45 metres (148 ft) long at a rate of as much as 2 feet (61 cm) per day. Giant kelp grows in dense stands known as kelp forests, which are home to many marine animals that depend on the algae for food or shelter. Humans harvest kelp for it is rich in iodine, potassium, and other minerals, but the primary product obtained from giant kelp is alginate. Description[edit] M.pyrifera is the largest of all algae. A related and similar-looking, but smaller species, M.integrifolia, grows to only to 6 metres (20 ft) long. Growth[edit] Ecology[edit] Aquaculture[edit] Gallery[edit] Notes[edit]

Biological pump Air-sea exchange of CO2 The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean’s biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea.[1] It is the part of the oceanic carbon cycle responsible for the cycling of organic matter formed by phytoplankton during photosynthesis (soft-tissue pump), as well as the cycling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed by certain plankton and mollusks as a protective coating (carbonate pump). Overview[edit] The biological pump can be divided into three distinct phases,[2] the first of which is the production of fixed carbon by planktonic phototrophs in the euphotic (Sunlit) surface region of the ocean. In these surface waters, phytoplankton use carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and other trace elements (barium, iron, zinc, etc.) during photosynthesis to make carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Primary Production[edit] CO2 + H2O + light → CH2O + O2 Calcium Carbonate[edit] Ca2+ + 2HCO3- → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

Ocean debris leads the way for castaway fisherman The fisherman who washed up on the Marshall Islands last weekend was very lucky to have stranded on a remote beach there. The currents in the Pacific Ocean would have inevitably taken him into the great garbage patch of the North Pacific, where he could then have been floating for centuries to come. The castaway - Jose Salvador Alvarenga, a fisherman from El Salvador - reportedly left Mexico in November 2012. His friend died about a month into the journey and Mr Alvarenga apparently survived on a diet of fish, birds and turtles, and by drinking turtle blood and rainwater. Drifting westward In the tropical Pacific, the trade winds create some of the strongest currents in the world. Some have cast doubt on the authenticity of Mr Alvarenga’s story but my research website adrift.org.au shows that flotsam that starts off the west coast of Mexico will pass through the Marshall Islands within 14 to 20 months. Click to enlarge Lucky to find land Caught in the rubbish Drifting buoys

Solutions Summit CETO - wave energy for electricity production and desalination of seawater

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