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French language

French language
French (le français [lə fʁ̥ɒ̃sɛ] ( ) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick (Acadia region) in Canada also in Haiti, the Acadiana region of the U.S. state of Louisiana, the northern parts of the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont in the New England region, and by various communities elsewhere. Other speakers of French, who often speak it as a second language,[3] are distributed throughout many parts of the world, the largest numbers of whom reside in Francophone Africa.[4] In Africa, French is most commonly spoken in Gabon (where 80% report fluency),[4] Mauritius (78%), Algeria (75%), Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire (70%). French is estimated as having 110 million[3] native speakers and 190 million more second language speakers.[5] Geographic distribution[edit] Europe[edit] Belgium[edit] Related:  Demographics of France

Languages of France The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. The French language is the only official language of France according to the second article of the French Constitution, and is by far the most widely spoken. Several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects (Alsacian 1.44%), Celtic languages (Breton 0.61%) and other Gallo-Romance languages (Langues d'Oïl 1.25%, Occitan 1.33%). Some of these languages have also been spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy or Spain. Status[edit] The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution) and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008.[2] Language education[edit] Celtic[edit]

Old French Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langues d'oïl, contrasting with the langues d'oc or "Occitan" languages in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French, the language of the French Renaissance, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region. Areal and dialectal divisions[edit] The areal of Old French in contemporary terms corresponded to the northern parts of the Kingdom of France (including Anjou and Normandy, which in the 12th century were ruled by the Plantagenet kings of England), Upper Burgundy and the duchy of Lorraine. Dialects or variants of Old French included: Distribution of the modern langues d'oïl (shades of green) and of Franco-Provençal dialects (shades of blue) History[edit] Evolution from Vulgar Latin[edit] Notes:

Walloon language Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that was spoken as a primary language in large portions (70%) of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of Wisconsin[2] until the middle of the 20th century. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language. The historical background of its formation was the territorial extension since 980 of the Principality of Liège to the south and west. Despite its rich literature, beginning anonymously in the 16th century and with well-known authors since 1756 (see the paragraph Literature), the use of Walloon has decreased markedly since France's annexation of Wallonia in 1795. Numerous associations, especially theatre companies, are working to keep the language alive. Walloon is more distinct as a language than Belgian French, which differs from the French spoken in France only in some minor points of vocabulary and pronunciation. Walloon[edit]

Langues d'oïl The langues d'oïl [lɑ̃ɡᵊdɔjl][2] or langues d'oui [lɑ̃ɡᵊdwi], in English the Oïl /ˈwiːl/ or Oui /ˈwiː/ languages, are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken today in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands. They belong to the larger Gallo-Romance group of languages, which also covers most of southern France (Occitania), northern Italy and eastern Spain (Catalan Countries) (some linguists place Catalan into the Ibero-Romance grouping instead). Linguists divide the Romance languages of France, and especially of Medieval France, into three geographical subgroups: Langues d'oïl and Langues d'oc, named after their words for 'yes', with Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) considered transitional. Meanings and disambiguation[edit] Langue d'oïl (in the singular), Oïl dialects and Oïl languages (in the plural) designate the ancient northern Gallo-Romance languages as well as their modern-day descendants. History[edit]

Italian language Italian ( italiano or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, and Somalia,[5][dubious ] and by expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardised Italian and other regional languages.[6] According to the Bologna statistics of the European Union, Italian is spoken as a native language by 59 million people in the EU (13% of the EU population), mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million (3%).[2] Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is more than 85 million. History Origins Renaissance Starting with the Renaissance Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the peninsula. Modern era Contemporary times Classification

Language policy in France France has one official language, the French language. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie. The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist many other vernacular minority languages of France, both in European France, in Overseas France, and in French overseas territories. These languages are recognized by the article 75-1 of the French constitution.[1] In France proper, Corsican, Breton, Gallo, Basque, Franco-Provençal, Occitan and Catalan have an official status in the regions where they are spoken. History[edit] Académie française[edit]

Provençal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Provençal may refer to: Of Provence, a region of FranceProvençal dialect, a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the southeast of FranceProvençal, meaning the whole Occitan languageThe Franco-Provençal language, a distinct Romance language, which should not be confused with the Occitan language or with the Provençal dialect of the Occitan languageProvencal, Louisiana, a village in the United StatesProvencal, an alternative name for the Italian wine grape Dolcetto Provençal dialect "Provençal" (with "Limousin") is also the customary name given to the older version of the langue d'oc used by the troubadours of medieval literature, while Old French or the langue d'oïl was limited to the northern areas of France. In 2007, the ISO 639-3 code changed from prv to oci, as prv was merged into oci. Sub-dialects[edit] The main sub-dialects of Provençal are: Rodanenc (in French Rhodanien) around the lower Rhone river, Arles, Avignon, Nîmes. Gavòt (in French Gavot), spoken in the Western Occitan Alps, around Digne, Sisteron, Gap, Barcelonnette and the upper County of Nice, but also in a part of the Ardèche, is not exactly a subdialect of Provençal, but rather a closely related Occitan dialect, also known as Vivaro-Alpine. Grammar[edit] When they are written in the Mistralian norm ("normo mistralenco"), definite articles are lou in the masculine singular, la in the feminine singular and li in the masculine and feminine plural (lis before vowels). Literature[edit] See also[edit]

Old Frankish Frankish or Old Franconian (or, less correctly, Old Frankish) was the language spoken by the Germanic Franks in the Low Countries and adjacent parts of contemporary France and Germany between the 4th and 8th century. It belongs to the West Germanic language group and is thought to have given rise to the modern Franconian languages. The Franks descended from Germanic tribes that settled parts of the Netherlands and western Germany during the early Iron Age. From the 4th century, they are attested as extending into what is now the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium. Knowledge of Frankish is almost entirely reconstructed from Old Dutch and from etyma and loanwords from Old French. During this period, Frankish had a major influence on the lexicon, pronunciation and grammar of the Romance languages spoken in former Roman Gaul. Difficulties arising from lack of attestation[edit] Nomenclature difficulties[edit] Language of the early Salian and Ripuarian Franks (210-500 AD)[edit]

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