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French language

French language
French (le français [lə fʁ̥ɒ̃sɛ] ( ) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick (Acadia region) in Canada also in Haiti, the Acadiana region of the U.S. state of Louisiana, the northern parts of the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont in the New England region, and by various communities elsewhere. Other speakers of French, who often speak it as a second language,[3] are distributed throughout many parts of the world, the largest numbers of whom reside in Francophone Africa.[4] In Africa, French is most commonly spoken in Gabon (where 80% report fluency),[4] Mauritius (78%), Algeria (75%), Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire (70%). French is estimated as having 110 million[3] native speakers and 190 million more second language speakers.[5] Geographic distribution[edit] Europe[edit] Belgium[edit] Related:  Demographics of France

Languages of France The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. The French language is the only official language of France according to the second article of the French Constitution, and is by far the most widely spoken. Several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects (Alsacian 1.44%), Celtic languages (Breton 0.61%) and other Gallo-Romance languages (Langues d'Oïl 1.25%, Occitan 1.33%). Some of these languages have also been spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy or Spain. Status[edit] The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution) and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008.[2] Language education[edit] Celtic[edit]

Language policy in France France has one official language, the French language. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie. The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist many other vernacular minority languages of France, both in European France, in Overseas France, and in French overseas territories. These languages are recognized by the article 75-1 of the French constitution.[1] In France proper, Corsican, Breton, Gallo, Basque, Franco-Provençal, Occitan and Catalan have an official status in the regions where they are spoken. History[edit] Académie française[edit]

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), known informally and more commonly as La Francophonie (or, more simply, Francophonie)[2][3] is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers); and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture. The organization comprises 57 member states and governments, three associate members and twenty observers. The term francophonie (with a lowercase "f") also refers to the global community of French-speaking peoples,[4] comprising a network of private and public organizations promoting special ties among all Francophones.[5] In a majority of member states, French is not the predominant native language. The modern organization was created in 1970. History[edit] Structure[edit] Executive Secretariat (Secretaries-General)[edit] Summits[edit] Previous Summits

French people The French (French: Français) are a nation and ethnic group native to France that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population descended from peoples of Celtic origin, later mixing with Romance and Germanic origin. It is also an ethno-linguistic group based on ancestral ties, but within France, the French are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence.[25] However, the word can also refer to people of French descent who are found in other countries, with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Canada (French Canadians), United States (French Americans), Argentina (French Argentines), United Kingdom (French British), Brazil (French Brazilians) and French West Indies (French Caribbean), and some of them have a French cultural identity.[26][27] Citizenship and legal residence[edit] History[edit] Celtic and Roman Gaul[edit] Frankish Kingdom[edit] Kingdom of France[edit]

Demographics of France Population density in the French Republic at the 1999 census. All territories are shown at the same geographic scale. The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE). On 1 January 2013, 66,394,000 people lived in the French Republic.[3] 63,702,000 of these lived in Metropolitan France,[4] whereas 2,692,000 lived in the French overseas departments and territories. France was historically Europe's most populous nation. The national birth rate, after continuing to drop for a time, began to rebound in the 1990s and currently the country's fertility rate is close to the replacement level. Historical population of metropolitan France[edit] Please note: (*) Note: Projections[edit] Source: [7] Figures are for metropolitan France only. Historical overview[edit] 1800 to 20th century[edit] Two centuries of population growth France was historically the largest nation of Europe.

Language Religion in France France is a country where freedom of religion and freedom of thought are guaranteed by virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Republic is based on the principle of laïcité (or "freedom of conscience") enforced by the 1880s Jules Ferry laws and the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. Roman Catholicism, the religion of a majority of French people, is no longer the state religion that it was before the 1789 Revolution and throughout the various, non-republican regimes of the 19th century (the Restoration, the July Monarchy and the Second French Empire). Major religions in France include the Catholic Church, Islam, various Protestant churches, Hinduism, Judaism, Russian Orthodoxy, Armenian Christianity, and Sikhism amongst others, making it a multi confessional country. Legal status and brief history[edit] Catholicism as a state religion[edit] Catholicism is the primary religion in France. Post-Edict of Nantes (1598-1789)[edit]

Religion Health care in France The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its 2000 assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.[1] In 2005, France spent 11.2% of GDP on health care, or US$3,926 per capita, a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the US. Approximately 77% of health expenditures are covered by government funded agencies.[2] Most general physicians are in private practice but draw their income from the public insurance funds. These funds, unlike their German counterparts, have never gained self-management responsibility. Average life expectancy in France at birth is 81 years.[3][4] History[edit] The reduction in infant mortality between 1960 and 2008 for France in comparison with Ireland, Switzerland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Health care system[edit]

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