Alfred Hitchcock Over a career spanning more than half a century, Hitchcock fashioned for himself a distinctive and recognisable directorial style. He pioneered the use of a camera made to move in a way that mimics a person's gaze, forcing viewers to engage in a form of voyeurism. He framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or empathy, and used innovative film editing. His stories often feature fugitives on the run from the law alongside "icy blonde" female characters. Many of Hitchcock's films have twist endings and thrilling plots featuring depictions of violence, murder, and crime. Many of the mysteries, however, are used as decoys or "MacGuffins" that serve the film's themes and the psychological examinations of the characters. Hitchcock's films also borrow many themes from psychoanalysis and feature strong sexual overtones. Through his cameo appearances in his own films, interviews, film trailers, and the television program Alfred Hitchcock Presents, he became a cultural icon.
Luis Buñuel Luis Buñuel Portolés (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlwiz βuˈɲwel portoˈles]; 22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France. When Luis Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in the New York Times called him "an iconoclast, moralist, and revolutionary who was a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later". His first picture—made in the silent era—was called "the most famous short film ever made" by critic Roger Ebert, and his last film—made 48 years later—won him Best Director awards from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics. Writer Octavio Paz called Buñuel's work "the marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality...scandalous and subversive". Early years (1900–1924) During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist. Career First French period (1925–1931) Un Chien Andalou (1929)
David Lynch David Keith Lynch (born January 20, 1946) is an American film director, television director, visual artist, musician and occasional actor. Known for his surrealist films, he has developed a unique cinematic style, which has been dubbed "Lynchian", a style characterized by its dream imagery and meticulous sound design. The surreal, and in many cases, violent, elements contained within his films have been known to "disturb, offend or mystify" audiences. Over his career, Lynch has received three Academy Award nominations for Best Director and a nomination for best screenplay. Lynch has won France's César Award for Best Foreign Film twice, as well as the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. Life and career Early life: 1946–1965 Philadelphia and short films: 1966–1970 Los Angeles and Eraserhead: 1971–1979 Lynch's Eraserhead, featuring Henry Spencer (Jack Nance).
Stanley Kubrick Stanley Kubrick (/ˈkuːbrɪk/; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, producer, cinematographer and editor who did much of his work in the United Kingdom. Part of the New Hollywood film-making wave, he is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential directors of all time. His films, typically adaptations of novels or short stories, are noted for their "dazzling" and unique cinematography, attention to detail in the service of realism, and the evocative use of music. Kubrick's films covered a variety of genres, including war, crime, literary adaptations, romantic and black comedies, horror, epic, and science fiction. Kubrick was also noted for being a demanding perfectionist, using painstaking care with scene staging, camera-work and coordinating extremely closely both with his actors and his behind-scenes collaborators. Early life Kubrick as an infant with his father, Jack Photographic career Film career Short films R. A.I.
Robert Bresson Robert Bresson (French: [ʁɔbɛʁ bʁɛsɔ̃]; 25 September 1901 – 18 December 1999) was a French film director known for his spiritual and ascetic style. He contributed notably to the art of film and influenced the French New Wave. He is often referred to as the most highly regarded French filmmaker after Jean Renoir. Bresson's influence on French cinema was once described by Jean-Luc Godard, who wrote "Robert Bresson is French cinema, as Dostoevsky is the Russian novel and Mozart is German music. Life and career Bresson was born at Bromont-Lamothe, Puy-de-Dôme, the son of Marie-Élisabeth (née Clausels) and Léon Bresson. Little is known of his early life. Initially also a photographer, Bresson made his first short film, Les affaires publiques (Public Affairs) in 1934. Themes Legacy Worldwide Bresson's book Notes on the Cinematographer (1975) is one of the most respected books on film theory and criticism. French Cinema and French New Wave Quotes
Quentin Tarantino Early life Tarantino was born in Knoxville, Tennessee in 1963. He is the son of actor and amateur musician Tony Tarantino and nurse Connie McHugh. He has a younger half-brother named Ron. Tarantino grew bored with the James Best Acting School and left after two years, although he kept in touch with all of his acting friends. He then landed a job which threatened to interfere with his long-term acting ambitions. As an employee of Video Archives, a now-defunct video rental store in Manhattan Beach, he and fellow movie enthusiasts (including Roger Avary) discussed cinema and customer video recommendations at length. He paid close attention to the types of films people liked to rent and has cited that experience as inspiration for his directorial career. Tarantino has been quoted as saying: "When people ask me if I went to film school I tell them 'no, I went to films Film career 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010–present
Fritz Lang Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was a German-Austrian filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best known émigrés from Germany's school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the "Master of Darkness" by the British Film Institute. Life and career Early life Lang was born in Vienna as the second son of Anton Lang (1860–1940), an architect and construction company manager, and his wife Pauline "Paula" Lang née Schlesinger (1864–1920). Lang's parents were of Moravian descent and practicing Roman Catholics. After finishing school, Lang briefly attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and eventually switched to art. At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for military service in the Austrian army and fought in Russia and Romania, where he was wounded three times. Emigration Hollywood career (1936–1957)
Jacques Demy Jacques Demy (French: [dəmi]; 5 June 1931 – 27 October 1990) was one of the most approachable filmmakers to appear in the wake of the French New Wave. Uninterested in the formal experimentation of Alain Resnais, or the political agitation of Jean-Luc Godard, Demy instead created a self-contained fantasy world closer to that of François Truffaut, drawing on musicals, fairytales and the golden age of Hollywood. Career La Baie des Anges (The Bay of Angels, 1963), starring Jeanne Moreau, took the theme of fate further, with its story of love at the roulette tables. Subsequent films are less highly regarded, but may well be due for reappraisal: David Thomson wrote about "the fascinating application of the operatic technique to an unusually dark story" in Une chambre en ville (A Room in Town, 1982). Jacques Demy died of AIDS (information given in Agnès Varda's 2008 autobiographical movie Les Plages d'Agnès) in 1990 at age 59 and was interred in the Montparnasse Cemetery in Montparnasse.
Terrence Malick Early life Film career Malick started his film career after earning an MFA from the AFI Conservatory in 1969, directing the short film "Lanton Mills". At the AFI, he established contacts with people such as Jack Nicholson, longtime collaborator Jack Fisk, and agent Mike Medavoy, who procured for Malick freelance work revising scripts. Paramount Pictures produced Malick's second film, Days of Heaven (1978), about a love triangle that develops in the farm country of the Texas Panhandle in the early 20th century. Chris Wisniewski about Days of Heaven and The New World Following the release of Days of Heaven, Malick began developing a project for Paramount, titled Q, that explored the origins of life on earth. A. Malick's sixth feature, titled To the Wonder, was shot predominately in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and a few scenes were filmed in Pawhuska, Oklahoma. Personal life As of at least 2011, Malick resides in Austin, Texas. Filmography Bibliography
Roman Polanski Roman Polanski (born Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański; 18 August 1933) is a Polish and, since 1976, naturalized-French film director, producer, writer, and actor. Having made films in Poland, the United Kingdom, France and the United States, he is considered one of the few "truly international filmmakers." Polanski's films have inspired diverse directors, including the Coen brothers, Wes Anderson, David Fincher, Atom Egoyan, Darren Aronofsky, Park Chan-wook, Sean Durkin, Abel Ferrara, and Wes Craven. Early life World War II I had just been visiting my grandmother ... when I received a foretaste of things to come. As he roamed the countryside trying to survive in a Poland now occupied by German troops, he witnessed many horrors, such as being "forced to take part in a cruel and sadistic game in which German soldiers took shots at him for target practice After the war After the war he was reunited with his father, and moved back to Kraków. Film director 1960s
Claude Chabrol Claude Henri Jean Chabrol (French: [klod ʃabʁɔl]; 1930–2010) was a French film director, a member of the French New Wave (nouvelle vague) group of filmmakers who first came to prominence at the end of the 1950s. Like his colleagues and contemporaries Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut, Éric Rohmer and Jacques Rivette, Chabrol was a critic for the influential film magazine Cahiers du cinéma before beginning his career as a film maker. Sometimes characterized as a "mainstream" New Wave director, Chabrol remained prolific and popular throughout his half-century career. In 1978, he cast Isabelle Huppert as the lead in Violette Nozière. On the strength of that effort, the pair went on to others including the successful Madame Bovary (1991) and La Ceremonie (1996). 1930–1957: Early life and journalism career 1957–1967: Early film career The most prolific of the major New Wave directors, Chabrol averaged almost one film a year from 1958 until his death.
Alfred Hitchcock Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (* 13. August 1899 in Leytonstone, England; † 29. April 1980 in Los Angeles, Kalifornien) war ein britischer Filmregisseur und Filmproduzent. 1939 siedelte er in die USA über und nahm am 20. April 1955 zusätzlich die amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft an. Hitchcock gilt, den Stil betreffend, als einer der einflussreichsten Spielfilmregisseure. Am 3. Leben und Werk[Bearbeiten] Kindheit, Jugend und Ausbildung[Bearbeiten] Alfred Hitchcock wurde am 13. 1915 nahm Hitchcock eine Stelle als technischer Angestellter bei der W. Anstellung beim Film[Bearbeiten] Im Frühjahr 1920 hörte Hitchcock von der Neugründung eines Studios der amerikanischen Produktionsgesellschaft Paramount Famous Players-Lasky im Londoner Stadtbezirk Islington. Zurück in England übertrug Michael Balcon Hitchcock 1925 die Regie für einen eigenen Film. Karriere in England[Bearbeiten] Leben und Arbeit in England[Bearbeiten] Englische Meisterwerke[Bearbeiten]
Alain Resnais In later films, Resnais moved away from the overtly political topics of some previous works and developed his interests in an interaction between cinema and other cultural forms, including theatre, music, and comic books. This led to imaginative adaptations of plays by Alan Ayckbourn, Henri Bernstein and Jean Anouilh, as well as films featuring various kinds of popular song. His films frequently explore the relationship between consciousness, memory, and the imagination, and he was noted for devising innovative formal structures for his narratives. Throughout his career, he won many awards from international film festivals and academies. Early life Visits to the theatre in Paris gave Resnais the desire to be an actor, and in 1939 he moved to Paris to become an assistant in Georges Pitoëff's company at the Théâtre des Mathurins. Career 1946–58: short films 1959–68 Resnais's first feature film was Hiroshima mon amour (1959). 1969–80 1981–2014