Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west). Assyria was a major Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East, existing as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries from c. 2500 BC to 605 BC, spanning the Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. For a further thirteen centuries, from the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times throughout this period. Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia(Iraq), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Names Pre-history of Assyria
Related: The Age of Taurus (The Taurean Age)
CreteCrete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.The capital and the largest city of Crete is Heraklion. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry, and music). Crete was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. Name NASA photograph of Crete The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). Physical geography Crete is the largest island in Greece and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Island morphology Mountains and valleys Climate
LascauxLa découverte de Lascaux en 1940 a ouvert une nouvelle page dans la connaissance de l’art préhistorique et de nos origines. Œuvre monumentale, la grotte continue de nourrir l’imaginaire collectif et d’émouvoir les nouvelles générations du monde entier. C’est à ce haut lieu de la Préhistoire qu’est dédiée la nouvelle publication multimédia du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, publication qui réactualise autant la forme que le contenu scientifique de ce site mis en ligne en 1998, à la lumière des dernières avancées de la recherche archéologique. Au delà de l’émotion et à la lumière des recherches les plus récentes, le site internet est destiné à faire comprendre les secrets des artistes qui ont peint et gravé le bestiaire de Lascaux il y a 19000 ans et à présenter les orientations actuelles de la recherche scientifique sur les grottes ornées. Vache rouge à tête noire. Haut de page
Old KingdomThe Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians. Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the 'capital', the royal residence, remained at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis. The basic justification for a separation between the two periods is the revolutionary change in architecture accompanied by the effects on Egyptian society and economy of large-scale building projects. Third Dynasty Fourth Dynasty Fifth Dynasty Sixth Dynasty
MoroccoMorocco (Arabic: المغرب al-Maġrib, Berber: ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ Lmaġrib, French: Maroc[Notes 1]), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a rugged mountainous interior and large portions of desert. The Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyah (Arabic: المملكة المغربية, meaning "The Western Kingdom") and Al-Maghrib (Arabic: المغرب, meaning "The West") are commonly used as alternate names. Morocco has a population of over 33 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). Its political capital is Rabat, although the largest city is Casablanca; other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, and Nador. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, while the official languages are Berber and Arabic.
Egyptian pyramidsA view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Historical development The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas. The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. Pyramid symbolism Abu Rawash
The First AmericansIn the 1970s, college students in archaeology such as myself learned that the first human beings to arrive in North America had come over a land bridge from Asia and Siberia approximately 13,000 to 13,500 years ago. These people, the first North Americans, were known collectively as Clovis people. Their journey was made possible, according to archaeologists far and wide, by a corridor that had opened up between giant ice sheets covering what is now Alaska and Alberta. Thus did the Clovis people move down through the North American continent, carrying their distinctive tools to various sites in the Plains States and the Southwest and then moving eastward. And all of this they did very quickly. Significant evidence of Clovis culture had been discovered in New Mexico. Clovis First, as it was called, was the one and only accepted explanation of initial human arrival and subsequent expansion throughout North and South America. Miller wondered what else lay beneath that patch of soil.
AnkhAnkh It represents the concept of eternal life, which is the general meaning of the symbol. The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. Origin The origin of the symbol remains a mystery to Egyptologists, and no single hypothesis has been widely accepted. It is by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. An ankh-shaped mirror case History A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites. The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia). In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis, the letter ku, from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing Ku(prion) (Cypriots). David P. References Bibliography Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. Notes Jump up ^ Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. External links
Modern Human faces Neanderthal across the DanubeDipl.Geol.Univ. Alexander Binsteiner examined in his thesis the chert deposit of Baierdorf at Ried castle in Altmühltal. After that, he was a field director of excavations at the flint mine of Arnhofen near Abensberg. From 1993-96 he was chief geologist of the Ötzi Project at the University of Innsbruck. Today he divides his time as a freelance geoarchaeologist between Austria, Bavaria and the Czech Republic. In Palaeolithic Europe 40,000 years ago, two different human species; anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals met for the first time. Millennia of Neanderthals in the Danube corridor It is without question that Neanderthals were the first to inhabit the corridor into what is now Europe. In the Rameschhöhle cave in the Totes Gebirge mountain range in Austria, archaeologists unearthed Levallois points from a 50,000 year-old layer along with countless remains of bears. The arrival of a new neighbour Cardium shells with suspension holes (length: 2.2 cm). Camp of early Homo sapiens