Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west). Assyria was a major Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East, existing as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries from c. 2500 BC to 605 BC, spanning the Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. For a further thirteen centuries, from the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times throughout this period. Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia(Iraq), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Names Pre-history of Assyria
Related: The Age of Taurus (The Taurean Age)
CreteCrete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.The capital and the largest city of Crete is Heraklion. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry, and music). Crete was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. Name NASA photograph of Crete The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). Physical geography Crete is the largest island in Greece and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Island morphology Mountains and valleys Climate
NinevehNineveh (English pronunciation: /ˈnɪn.ɪv.ə/; Akkadian: Ninwe; Classical Syriac: ܢܸܢܘܵܐ; Hebrew: נינוה Nīnewē; Greek: Νινευή Nineuē; Naynuwa; Persian: نینوا Latin: Nineve Arabic: نينوى Ninawa) was an ancient Assyrian city on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Etymology The origin of the name Nineveh is obscure. Possibly it meant originally the seat of Ishtar, since Nina was one of the Babylonian names of that goddess. Geography Ancient Nineveh's mound-ruins of Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris and the Khosr Rivers within an area of 750 hectares (1,900 acres) circumscribed by a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) brick rampart. Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris. History Nineveh was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. The king hunting lion from the North Palace, Nineveh seen at the British Museum Biblical Nineveh
LascauxLa découverte de Lascaux en 1940 a ouvert une nouvelle page dans la connaissance de l’art préhistorique et de nos origines. Œuvre monumentale, la grotte continue de nourrir l’imaginaire collectif et d’émouvoir les nouvelles générations du monde entier. C’est à ce haut lieu de la Préhistoire qu’est dédiée la nouvelle publication multimédia du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, publication qui réactualise autant la forme que le contenu scientifique de ce site mis en ligne en 1998, à la lumière des dernières avancées de la recherche archéologique. Au delà de l’émotion et à la lumière des recherches les plus récentes, le site internet est destiné à faire comprendre les secrets des artistes qui ont peint et gravé le bestiaire de Lascaux il y a 19000 ans et à présenter les orientations actuelles de la recherche scientifique sur les grottes ornées. Vache rouge à tête noire. Haut de page
Old KingdomThe Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians. Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the 'capital', the royal residence, remained at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis. The basic justification for a separation between the two periods is the revolutionary change in architecture accompanied by the effects on Egyptian society and economy of large-scale building projects. Third Dynasty Fourth Dynasty Fifth Dynasty Sixth Dynasty
Neo-Assyrian EmpireThe Neo-Assyrian Empire was an empire in Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC. During this period, Assyria assumed a position as the most powerful state on earth, successfully eclipsing Babylonia, Egypt, Urartu/Armenia and Elam for dominance of the Near East, Asia Minor, Caucasus, North Africa and east Mediterranean, though not until the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC did it become a vast empire. The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Middle Assyrian period and Middle Assyrian Empire (14th to 10th centuries BC). Some scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye, regard the Neo-Assyrian Empire to be the first real empire in human history. During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language. Historical context Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. Pre-reform Assyrian Empire 911-745 BC Expansion up to 858 BC
MoroccoMorocco (Arabic: المغرب al-Maġrib, Berber: ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ Lmaġrib, French: Maroc[Notes 1]), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a rugged mountainous interior and large portions of desert. The Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyah (Arabic: المملكة المغربية, meaning "The Western Kingdom") and Al-Maghrib (Arabic: المغرب, meaning "The West") are commonly used as alternate names. Morocco has a population of over 33 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). Its political capital is Rabat, although the largest city is Casablanca; other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, and Nador. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, while the official languages are Berber and Arabic.
Egyptian pyramidsA view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Historical development The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas. The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. Pyramid symbolism Abu Rawash
Ashur (god)A Neo-Assyrian "feather robed archer" figure, symbolizing Ashur. The right hand is extended similar to the Faravahar figure, while the left hand holds a bow instead of a ring (9th or 8th century BC relief). Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; written A-šur, also Aš-šùr) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria. During the various periods of Assyrian conquest, such as the Assyrian Empire of Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1391-1056 BC) and Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), the Assyrians did not require conquered peoples to take up the worship of Ashur; instead, Assyrian imperial propaganda declared that the conquered peoples had been abandoned by their gods. An Assyrian standard, which probably represented the "world column", has the disc mounted on a bull's head with horns.