Enlil Enlil with his wife, Ninlil Origins Enlil was known as the inventor of the mattock (a key agricultural pick, hoe, ax or digging tool of the Sumerians) and helped plants to grow. Cosmological role Enlil, along with Anu/An, Enki and Ninhursag were gods of the Sumerians. Cultural histories Enlil is associated with the ancient city of Nippur, sometimes referred to as the cult city of Enlil. His temple was named Ekur, "House of the Mountain At a very early period prior to 3000 BC, Nippur had become the centre of a political district of considerable extent. His chief temple at Nippur was known as Ekur, signifying 'House of the mountain'. Grouped around the main sanctuary, there arose temples and chapels to the gods and goddesses who formed his court, so that Ekur became the name for an entire sacred precinct in the city of Nippur. See also References External links
Anu - www.GatewaysToBabylon.com The name of the Mesopotamian Skyfather and Lord of Firmament, or the Great Above, is written with the sign that means heaven. It also stands for the determinative of divinity in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hittite. In Babylon, He is called Anu. According to the Southern Creation Myth, or the Eridu Model, He (the Firmament) and Ki came into being out of Nammu, the Sea, the Primeval Mother of all for the Sumerians. Ki, the Earth, was his sister-beloved since the time of conception, when they lay in each other´s arms within Mother Nammu. Later, when Heaven and Earth were separated by Enlil, the young Air God, Ki´s and Anu´s firsborn, from the Heights Above where He found his sacred space, Anu came down to Ki (the Living Earth) to make life grow. Anu is therefore Lord of Creation, whose main symbol, the horned crown, is also the symbol of the king and the high priest, or Supreme Authority over all realms. The antiquity of An as a divine personality is subject to controversy.
Enbilulu In the Enuma Elish Enbilulu is said to "know the secrets of water" and "of the running of rivers below the earth". Another version calls him "The Lord who makes all things flourish" who regulates for the land the grazing and watering places, who opened the wells and thereby apportioned the waters of abundance. Various translations of Enuma Elish attribute as many as three separate aspects of divinity to Enbilulu. They include the names Epadun ("the lord who sprinkles the field", who knows the most subtle geometries of the earth), Enbilulugugal ("lord of abundance, opulence and ample crops", the power that presides over all growth and all things that grow), and Hegal ("who provides rich rains over the wide earth and provides vegetation for the people's consumption", often called the master of the arts of farming and agriculture as well as one who knows the secrets of metals). Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002
Dagon A conjectured colored engraving of Dagon, the "fish-god." His name appears in Hebrew as דגון (in modern transcription Dagon, Tiberian Hebrew Dāḡôn), in Ugaritic as dgn (probably vocalized as Dagnu), and in Akkadian as Dagana, Daguna usually rendered in English translations as Dagan. Etymology In Ugaritic, the root dgn also means grain: in Hebrew דגן dāgān, Samaritan dīgan, is an archaic word for grain. The Phoenician author Sanchuniathon also says Dagon means siton, that being the Greek word for grain. It is perhaps related to the Middle Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic word dgnʾ 'be cut open' or to Arabic dagn (دجن) 'rain-(cloud)'. The theory relating the name to Hebrew dāg/dâg, 'fish', based solely upon a reading of 1 Samuel 5:2–7 is discussed in Fish-god tradition below. Non-biblical sources In Ugarit around 1300 BC, Dagon had a large temple and was listed third in the pantheon following a father-god and Ēl, and preceding Baīl Ṣapān (that is the god Haddu or Hadad/Adad). Marnas
THE VIKINGS THE VIKINGS:Combat equipment and fighting techniques Throughout the Dark Ages, war was a fact of life in many areas. From the opportunistic raids of Vikings to the massed battles of the C10th, most areas experienced the fear of imminent violence, and saw their men march off to fight and die. So, how exactly did they fight? Combat Equipment Swords - the sword was the weapon of choice of the wealthy warriors and the aristocracy of the Viking Age. Axes - the characteristic weapon of the Vikings, the axe is found in many burials and is shown on several carved stones. Spears - spears are the most common weapon found in graves in Scandinavia during the earlier Viking Age, and in England from the earliest Saxon period. Archery - bows of varying sizes were used extensively in hunting, and would undoubtedly have been used in battles, particularly at sea. Armour - the most common armour of the period was the mail shirt, referred to as a byrnie for most of the period. Combat Style Battlefield Tactics
Anu In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian *An 𒀭 = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara. His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat. Sumerian religion Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An(and determinative sign for deities see: DINGIR) Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the subterranean Abzu). In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted. Assyro-Babylonian religion See also Notes
Sumerian King List The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of "official" kingship. Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region. Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin's claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia. Composition Sources The following extant ancient sources contain the Sumerian King List, or fragments: The first two sources (WB) are a part of the "Weld-Blundell collection", donated by Herbert Weld Blundell to the Ashmolean Museum. The list Dynasty of Awan
Marduk Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 "solar calf"; perhaps from MERI.DUG; Biblical Hebrew מְרֹדַךְ Merodach; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BCE), started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BCE. In the city of Babylon, he resided in the temple Esagila. According to The Encyclopedia of Religion, the name Marduk was probably pronounced Marutuk. In the perfected system of astrology, the planet Jupiter was associated with Marduk by the Hammurabi period. Mythology Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal Babylonian In the case of Ea, the transfer proceeded pacifically and without effacing the older god.
Atargatis Atargatis /əˈtɑrɡətɨs/ or Ataratheh (/əˈtærəθə/; Aramaic: ‘Atar‘atheh or Tar‘atheh) was a Syrian deity, the chief goddess of northern Syria (Michael Rostovtzeff called her "the great mistress of the North Syrian lands"), Ctesias also used the name Derceto for her. and to the Romans as Dea Syriae ("Syrian goddess"). Primarily she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat ("mistress") of her city and people, she was also responsible for their protection and well-being. Her chief sanctuary was at Hierapolis, modern Manbij, northeast of Aleppo, Syria. She is sometimes described as a mermaid-goddess, because of a fish-bodied goddess at Ascalon. Her consort is usually Hadad. Name and origin The name Atargatis derives from the Aramaic form ‘Atar‘atheh, which comes in several variants. Cult centers and images The fishpond of fish sacred to Atargatis survives at Sanliurfa, the ancient Edessa, its mythology transferred to Ibrahim Syncretism Notes