A large number of myths about Enki have been collected from many sites, stretching from Southern Iraq to the Levantine coast. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. Attributes Myths of Enki Enki and Ninhursag and the Creation of Life and Sickness The cosmogenic myth common in Sumer was that of the hieros gamos, a sacred marriage where divine principles in the form of dualistic opposites came together as male and female to give birth to the cosmos. "The land of Dilmun is a pure place, the land of Dilmun is a clean place, The land of Dilmun is a clean place, the land of Dilmun is a bright place; He who is alone laid himself down in Dilmun, The place, after Enki is clean, that place is bright" "Her City Drinks the Water of Abundance, Dilmun Drinks the Water of Abundance, Her wells of bitter water, behold they are become wells of good water, Enki and the Making of Man
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AnuIn Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian *An 𒀭 = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara. His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat. Sumerian religion Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An(and determinative sign for deities see: DINGIR) Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the subterranean Abzu). In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted. Assyro-Babylonian religion See also Notes
THE VIKINGSTHE VIKINGS:Combat equipment and fighting techniques Throughout the Dark Ages, war was a fact of life in many areas. From the opportunistic raids of Vikings to the massed battles of the C10th, most areas experienced the fear of imminent violence, and saw their men march off to fight and die. So, how exactly did they fight? Combat Equipment Swords - the sword was the weapon of choice of the wealthy warriors and the aristocracy of the Viking Age. Axes - the characteristic weapon of the Vikings, the axe is found in many burials and is shown on several carved stones. Spears - spears are the most common weapon found in graves in Scandinavia during the earlier Viking Age, and in England from the earliest Saxon period. Archery - bows of varying sizes were used extensively in hunting, and would undoubtedly have been used in battles, particularly at sea. Armour - the most common armour of the period was the mail shirt, referred to as a byrnie for most of the period. Combat Style Battlefield Tactics
InannaInanna (/ɪˈnænə/ or /ɪˈnɑːnə/; Cuneiform: 𒀭𒈹 DMUŠ3; Sumerian: Inanna; Akkadian: Ištar; Unicode: U+12239) is the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility, and warfare, and goddess of the E-Anna temple at the city of Uruk, her main centre. Part of the front of Inanna's temple from Uruk Origins Etymology Inanna's name derives from Lady of Heaven (Sumerian: nin-an-ak). Worship One version of the star symbol of Inanna/Ishtar Iconography Inanna's symbol is an eight-pointed star or a rosette. She was associated with lions – even then a symbol of power – and was frequently depicted standing on the backs of two lionesses. Inanna as the star, Venus Inanna was associated with the celestial planet Venus. Inanna's Descent to the Underworld explains how Inanna is able to, unlike any other deity, descend into the netherworld and return to the heavens. Character Inanna is the goddess of love – but not marriage. Myths Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
New timeline for origin of ancient Egypt3 September 2013Last updated at 20:51 ET By Rebecca Morelle Science reporter, BBC World Service Archaeological digs in Egypt reveal where the First Dynasty kings of Egypt are buried - but until now a timeline has been difficult to establish A new timeline for the origin of ancient Egypt has been established by scientists. A team from the UK found that the transformation from a land of disparate farmers into a state ruled by a king was more rapid than previously thought. Using radiocarbon dating and computer models, they believe the civilisation's first ruler - King Aha - came to power in about 3100BC. The research is published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Lead researcher Dr Michael Dee, from the Research Laboratory for Archaeology at the University of Oxford, said: "The formation of Egypt was unique in the ancient world. First dynasty Until now, the chronology of the earliest days of Egypt has been based on rough estimates. Continue reading the main story “Start Quote
EnlilEnlil with his wife, Ninlil Enlil (nlin), 𒂗𒇸 ( EN = Lord + LÍL = Storm, "Lord (of the) Storm") [ 1 ] was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion , and later in Akkadian ( Assyrian [ disambiguation needed ] and Babylonian ), Hittite , Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature. In later Akkadian, Enlil is the son of Anshar and Kishar . Enlil was considered to be the god of breath, wind, loft and breadth (height and distance). [ 2 ] Origins [ edit ] One story names his origins as the exhausted breath of An (god of the heavens) and Ki (goddess of the Earth) after sexual union. [ citation needed ] The myth of Enlil and Ninlil discusses when Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun , home of the gods, to Kur , the underworld for raping a goddess named Ninlil . Cosmological role [ edit ] References [ edit ]
Roman skulls washed down lost London river1 October 2013Last updated at 21:36 ET By Melissa Hogenboom Science reporter, BBC News About 20 Roman skulls were dug up from an old river bed near Liverpool Street station in London Archaeologists working with London's Crossrail project have uncovered 20 skulls believed to be from the Roman period. It is likely the bones were washed from a nearby burial site along one of London's "lost" rivers - the Walbrook. In the last year archaeologists in London have also found about 10,000 Roman items at a nearby site. These latest finds could give new insights into the lives of Roman people. Near-intact pottery artefacts were also found which probably travelled along the same route as the skulls. Paved over in the 15th Century, the Walbrook river divided the western and eastern parts of the city, its moist muddy walls providing exceptionally good conditions for artefacts to be preserved. "It's relatively unusual to find so many concentrated [in one area] when you're not in a graveyard.
Tammuz (deity)Tammuz (Syriac: ܬܡܘܙ; Hebrew: תַּמּוּז, Transliterated Hebrew: Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew: Tammûz; Arabic: تمّوز Tammūz; Akkadian: Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian: Dumuzid (DUMU.ZI(D), "faithful or true son") was the name of a Sumerian god of food and vegetation, also worshiped in the later Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. Beginning with the summer solstice came a time of mourning in the Ancient Near East, as in the Aegean: the Babylonians marked the decline in daylight hours and the onset of killing summer heat and drought with a six-day "funeral" for the god. Recent discoveries reconfirm him as an annual life-death-rebirth deity: tablets discovered in 1963 show that Dumuzi was in fact consigned to the Underworld himself, in order to secure Inanna's release, though the recovered final line reveals that he is to revive for six months of each year (see below). Ezekiel's testimony is the only direct mention of Tammuz in the Hebrew Bible. There is some confusion here.
3,000 Years of Human History, Described in One Set of Mathematical Equations | Surprising ScienceMost people think of history as a series of stories—tales of one army unexpectedly defeating another, or a politician making a memorable speech, or an upstart overthrowing a sitting monarch. Peter Turchin of the University of Connecticut sees things rather differently. Formally trained as a ecologist, he sees history as a series of equations. Specifically, he wants to bring the types of mathematical models used in fields such as wildlife ecology to explain population trends in a different species: humans. In a paper published with colleagues today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, he presents a mathematical model (shown on the left of the video above) that correlates well with historical data (shown on the right) on the development and spread of large-scale, complex societies (represented as red territories on the green area studied). This might not sound like a perfect accounting of human history, but that’s not really the goal.