Enbilulu In the Enuma Elish Enbilulu is said to "know the secrets of water" and "of the running of rivers below the earth". Another version calls him "The Lord who makes all things flourish" who regulates for the land the grazing and watering places, who opened the wells and thereby apportioned the waters of abundance. Various translations of Enuma Elish attribute as many as three separate aspects of divinity to Enbilulu. They include the names Epadun ("the lord who sprinkles the field", who knows the most subtle geometries of the earth), Enbilulugugal ("lord of abundance, opulence and ample crops", the power that presides over all growth and all things that grow), and Hegal ("who provides rich rains over the wide earth and provides vegetation for the people's consumption", often called the master of the arts of farming and agriculture as well as one who knows the secrets of metals). Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002
Anu In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian *An 𒀭 = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara. His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat. Sumerian religion Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An(and determinative sign for deities see: DINGIR) Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the subterranean Abzu). In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted. Assyro-Babylonian religion See also Notes
THE VIKINGS THE VIKINGS:Combat equipment and fighting techniques Throughout the Dark Ages, war was a fact of life in many areas. From the opportunistic raids of Vikings to the massed battles of the C10th, most areas experienced the fear of imminent violence, and saw their men march off to fight and die. So, how exactly did they fight? Combat Equipment Swords - the sword was the weapon of choice of the wealthy warriors and the aristocracy of the Viking Age. Axes - the characteristic weapon of the Vikings, the axe is found in many burials and is shown on several carved stones. Spears - spears are the most common weapon found in graves in Scandinavia during the earlier Viking Age, and in England from the earliest Saxon period. Archery - bows of varying sizes were used extensively in hunting, and would undoubtedly have been used in battles, particularly at sea. Armour - the most common armour of the period was the mail shirt, referred to as a byrnie for most of the period. Combat Style Battlefield Tactics
Marduk Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 "solar calf"; perhaps from MERI.DUG; Biblical Hebrew מְרֹדַךְ Merodach; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BCE), started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BCE. In the city of Babylon, he resided in the temple Esagila. According to The Encyclopedia of Religion, the name Marduk was probably pronounced Marutuk. In the perfected system of astrology, the planet Jupiter was associated with Marduk by the Hammurabi period. Mythology Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal Babylonian In the case of Ea, the transfer proceeded pacifically and without effacing the older god.
Inanna Inanna (/ɪˈnænə/ or /ɪˈnɑːnə/; Cuneiform: 𒀭𒈹 DMUŠ3; Sumerian: Inanna; Akkadian: Ištar; Unicode: U+12239) is the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility, and warfare, and goddess of the E-Anna temple at the city of Uruk, her main centre. Part of the front of Inanna's temple from Uruk Origins Etymology Inanna's name derives from Lady of Heaven (Sumerian: nin-an-ak). Worship One version of the star symbol of Inanna/Ishtar Iconography Inanna's symbol is an eight-pointed star or a rosette. She was associated with lions – even then a symbol of power – and was frequently depicted standing on the backs of two lionesses. Inanna as the star, Venus Inanna was associated with the celestial planet Venus. Inanna's Descent to the Underworld explains how Inanna is able to, unlike any other deity, descend into the netherworld and return to the heavens. Character Inanna is the goddess of love – but not marriage. Myths Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
New timeline for origin of ancient Egypt 3 September 2013Last updated at 20:51 ET By Rebecca Morelle Science reporter, BBC World Service Archaeological digs in Egypt reveal where the First Dynasty kings of Egypt are buried - but until now a timeline has been difficult to establish A new timeline for the origin of ancient Egypt has been established by scientists. A team from the UK found that the transformation from a land of disparate farmers into a state ruled by a king was more rapid than previously thought. Using radiocarbon dating and computer models, they believe the civilisation's first ruler - King Aha - came to power in about 3100BC. The research is published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Lead researcher Dr Michael Dee, from the Research Laboratory for Archaeology at the University of Oxford, said: "The formation of Egypt was unique in the ancient world. First dynasty Until now, the chronology of the earliest days of Egypt has been based on rough estimates. Continue reading the main story “Start Quote
Nammu For the village in Burma, see Nammu, Burma. In Sumerian mythology, Nammu (also Namma, spelled ideographically 𒀭𒇉 dNAMMA = dENGUR) was a primeval goddess, corresponding to Tiamat in Babylonian mythology. Nammu is not well attested in Sumerian mythology. She may have been of greater importance prehistorically, before Enki took over most of her functions. Reay Tannahill in Sex in History (1980) singled out Nammu as the "only female prime mover" in the cosmogonic myths of antiquity.  References External links Enlil Enlil with his wife, Ninlil Enlil (nlin), 𒂗𒇸 ( EN = Lord + LÍL = Storm, "Lord (of the) Storm") [ 1 ] was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion , and later in Akkadian ( Assyrian [ disambiguation needed ] and Babylonian ), Hittite , Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature. In later Akkadian, Enlil is the son of Anshar and Kishar . Enlil was considered to be the god of breath, wind, loft and breadth (height and distance). [ 2 ] Origins [ edit ] One story names his origins as the exhausted breath of An (god of the heavens) and Ki (goddess of the Earth) after sexual union. [ citation needed ] The myth of Enlil and Ninlil discusses when Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun , home of the gods, to Kur , the underworld for raping a goddess named Ninlil . Cosmological role [ edit ] References [ edit ]
Roman skulls washed down lost London river 1 October 2013Last updated at 21:36 ET By Melissa Hogenboom Science reporter, BBC News About 20 Roman skulls were dug up from an old river bed near Liverpool Street station in London Archaeologists working with London's Crossrail project have uncovered 20 skulls believed to be from the Roman period. It is likely the bones were washed from a nearby burial site along one of London's "lost" rivers - the Walbrook. In the last year archaeologists in London have also found about 10,000 Roman items at a nearby site. These latest finds could give new insights into the lives of Roman people. Near-intact pottery artefacts were also found which probably travelled along the same route as the skulls. Paved over in the 15th Century, the Walbrook river divided the western and eastern parts of the city, its moist muddy walls providing exceptionally good conditions for artefacts to be preserved. "It's relatively unusual to find so many concentrated [in one area] when you're not in a graveyard.