Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound. This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects. All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons. Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. Definition Common definition Quarks
Related: New Earth Space
Here's How You Can Help Scientists Study Sex, Whales, and Distant Galaxies"There is so much we don't know!" said Dick Vane-Wright, the Keeper of Entomology at the London Museum of Natural History when author Sharman Apt Russell was asking about butterflies. "You could spend a week studying some obscure insect and you would then know more than anyone else on the planet. Our ignorance is profound." Russell is an evangelist for citizen science—that is, research conducted by amateur aficionados of data collection. Ultimately, though, what Russell learned went far beyond the intricate details of tiger beetles' lives. So for anyone who wants to dip their toes into science, but then leave the heavy lifting to the professionals, citizen science might be the answer. 1) Classify galaxy shapes using Galaxy Zoo: There are about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe, and we know very little about the vast majority of them. Screenshot: Foldit 4) Help scientists learn about human sexual activity via Kinsey Reporter: Want a project that's a bit more titillating?
CosmopolitanismCosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationship, or a political structure that encompasses different nations. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places (e.g. nation-states) form relationships of mutual respect. As an example, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations (physical, economic, etc.) enter relationships of mutual respect despite their differing beliefs (religious, political, etc.). Various cities and locales, past or present, have or are defined as "cosmopolitan"; that does not necessarily mean that all or most of their inhabitants consciously embrace the above philosophy. Etymology Definitions
Susanne BobzienSusanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher, whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy. She currently is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford. Education Bobzien was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1960. She graduated in 1985 with an M.A. (Magister Artium) at Bonn University, and in 1993 with a doctorate in philosophy (D.Phil) at Oxford University. Academic career Main contributions to philosophy Determinism and freedom Kant: Bobzien's "Die Kategorien der Freiheit bei Kant" (The Categories of Freedom in Kant) has been described as an article "that has long been the starting point for any German reader seeking to deepen his understanding of the second chapter of [the Analytic of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason] Ancient logic Vagueness Major publications Determinism and freedom
10 Reasons Why Our Universe Is A Virtual RealityOur World Physical realism is the view that the physical world we see is real and exists by itself, alone. Most people think this is self-evident, but physical realism has been struggling with the facts of physics for some time now. The paradoxes that baffled physics last century still baffle it today, and its great hopes of string theory and supersymmetry aren’t leading anywhere. In contrast, quantum theory works, but quantum waves that entangle, superpose, then collapse to a point are physically impossible—they must be “imaginary.” Quantum realism is the opposite view—that the quantum world is real and is creating the physical world as a virtual reality. Quantum realism isn’t The Matrix, where the other world making ours was also physical. 10Our Universe Began Physical Realism: Everyone has heard of the Big Bang, but if the physical universe is all there is, how did it begin? Quantum Realism: Every virtual reality boots up with a first event that also begins its space and time.
ChrysippusChrysippus of Soli (Greek: Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 – c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was a native of Soli, Cilicia, but moved to Athens as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. Life Chrysippus threw himself eagerly into the study of the Stoic system. Chrysippus was a prolific writer. Of his written works, none have survived except as fragments embedded in the works of later authors like Cicero, Seneca, Galen, Plutarch, and others. Logic
Fractal UniversePropositional calculusUsually in Truth-functional propositional logic, formulas are interpreted as having either a truth value of true or a truth value of false.[clarification needed] Truth-functional propositional logic and systems isomorphic to it, are considered to be zeroth-order logic. History Although propositional logic (which is interchangeable with propositional calculus) had been hinted by earlier philosophers, it was developed into a formal logic by Chrysippus and expanded by the Stoics. Propositional logic was eventually refined using symbolic logic. Just as propositional logic can be considered an advancement from the earlier syllogistic logic, Gottlob Frege's predicate logic was an advancement from the earlier propositional logic. Terminology When the formal system is intended to be a logical system, the expressions are meant to be interpreted to be statements, and the rules, known to be inference rules, are typically intended to be truth-preserving. , and Basic concepts . and
Computer Physics LabBaruch SpinozaBiography Family and community origins Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent, and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Alhambra Decree in Spain (1492) and the Portuguese Inquisition (1536), which had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian peninsula. Attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese "conversos" first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism. In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission and government of the Jews was passed. As a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity. Spinoza's father, Miguel (Michael), and his uncle, Manuel, then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism. 17th-century Holland Early life Expulsion from the Jewish community