Quantum gravity Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics. Although a quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, difficulties arise when one attempts to apply the usual prescriptions of quantum field theory to the force of gravity.[3] From a technical point of view, the problem is that the theory one gets in this way is not renormalizable and therefore cannot be used to make meaningful physical predictions. As a result, theorists have taken up more radical approaches to the problem of quantum gravity, the most popular approaches being string theory and loop quantum gravity.[4] Strictly speaking, the aim of quantum gravity is only to describe the quantum behavior of the gravitational field and should not be confused with the objective of unifying all fundamental interactions into a single mathematical framework.

Multivalued gauge transformations StarTalk Live: The Particle Party (Part 2) Listen now: Season 3, Episode 19 Photo credit: Leslie Mullen StarTalk Live’s celebration of the discovery of the Higgs boson on July 11, 2012 continues as CERN physicist Kyle Cranmer clues us in to what’s next in the investigation of the Higgs, now that it turns out it isn’t exactly what they thought it would be. Co-Host:Eugene Mirman, comedian Guests: Bill Nye the Science GuyKyle Cranmer, NYU Assistant Professor of Physics and CERN physicistScott Adsit, comedian, 30 RockSarah Vowell, author Music:I Feel So Close To You by Calvin HarrisStar Wars: The Force Unleashed: Battle SongPredictable by Good CharlottePerfect Symmetry by KeaneParallel Universe by Red Hot Chili PeppersThe Future is Now by The OffspringA Thousand Miles by Vanessa CarltonUnexpected by NeginInternational Love by Pitbull with Chris Brown

Higgs boson The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 each independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate sensationalism.[17][18] In 2013 two of the original researchers, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction[19] (Englert's co-researcher Robert Brout had died in 2011). A non-technical summary[edit] "Higgs" terminology[edit] Overview[edit] If this field did exist, this would be a monumental discovery for science and human knowledge, and is expected to open doorways to new knowledge in many fields. History[edit]

Supersymmetry Time Machine EARTH-SIZED PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF ANOTHER STAR: Using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting in the "habitable zone" of another star. The planet, named "Kepler-186f" orbits an M dwarf, or red dwarf, a class of stars that makes up 70 percent of the stars in the Milky Way: full story. THE TURQUOISE FRINGE: Lunar eclipses are supposed to be red, yet when the Moon passed through Earth's amber shadow on April 15th, many observers witnessed a softly-glowing band of turquoise blue. Robert and Elisabeth Slobins send this picture of the phenomenon from Fort Myers, Florida: The source of the turquoise is ozone. For years, Keen has been using lunar eclipses to probe the transparency of the stratosphere. To see the effects of ozone on the eclipse, you have to be looking at just the right moment. Realtime Eclipse Photo Gallery CHANCE OF M-CLASS FLARES: NOAA forecasters estimate a 60% chance of M-class flares today.

Boson In quantum mechanics, a boson (/ˈboʊsɒn/,[1] /ˈboʊzɒn/[2]) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions.[3] The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac[4] to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose[5][6] in developing, with Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.[7] Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the recently discovered Higgs boson, and the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity; composite particles (e.g. mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, mass number = 2), helium-4, or lead-208[Note 1]); and some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).[8]:130 Types[edit] Properties[edit] Elementary bosons[edit] Composite bosons[edit]

Gauge theory The Four Fundamental Forces As of July 1, 2013 ThinkQuest has been discontinued. We would like to thank everyone for being a part of the ThinkQuest global community: Students - For your limitless creativity and innovation, which inspires us all. Teachers - For your passion in guiding students on their quest. Partners - For your unwavering support and evangelism. Parents - For supporting the use of technology not only as an instrument of learning, but as a means of creating knowledge. We encourage everyone to continue to “Think, Create and Collaborate,” unleashing the power of technology to teach, share, and inspire. Best wishes, The Oracle Education Foundation

Wave function However, complex numbers are not necessarily used in all treatments. Louis de Broglie in his later years proposed a real-valued wave function connected to the complex wave function by a proportionality constant and developed the de Broglie–Bohm theory. The unit of measurement for ψ depends on the system. For one particle in three dimensions, its units are [length]−3/2. These unusual units are required so that an integral of |ψ|2 over a region of three-dimensional space is a unitless probability (the probability that the particle is in that region). Historical background[edit] In the 1920s and 1930s, quantum mechanics was developed using calculus and linear algebra. Wave functions and function spaces[edit] Functional analysis is commonly used to formulate the wave function with a necessary mathematical precision; usually they are quadratically integrable functions (at least locally) because it is compatible with the Hilbert space formalism mentioned below. Requirements[edit]

Haag's theorem

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