**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersymmetry**

Haag's theorem Rudolf Haag postulated [1] that the interaction picture does not exist in an interacting, relativistic quantum field theory (QFT), something now commonly known as Haag's Theorem. Haag's original proof was subsequently generalized by a number of authors, notably Hall and Wightman,[2] who reached the conclusion that a single, universal Hilbert space representation does not suffice for describing both free and interacting fields. In 1975, Reed and Simon proved [3] that a Haag-like theorem also applies to free neutral scalar fields of different masses, which implies that the interaction picture cannot exist even under the absence of interactions. Formal description of Haag's theorem[edit] In its modern form, the Haag theorem may be stated as follows:[4]

Electrons are fantastically round, say British scientists After three months of experiments in a basement laboratory in London, scientists can confirm – with more confidence than ever – that the electron is very, very round. In the most exquisite measurements yet, researchers declared the particle to be a perfect sphere to within one billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimetre. Were the electron scaled up to the size of the solar system, any deviation from its roundness would be smaller than the width of a human hair, the team said.

Quantum gravity Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics. Although a quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, difficulties arise when one attempts to apply the usual prescriptions of quantum field theory to the force of gravity.[3] From a technical point of view, the problem is that the theory one gets in this way is not renormalizable and therefore cannot be used to make meaningful physical predictions. As a result, theorists have taken up more radical approaches to the problem of quantum gravity, the most popular approaches being string theory and loop quantum gravity.[4] Strictly speaking, the aim of quantum gravity is only to describe the quantum behavior of the gravitational field and should not be confused with the objective of unifying all fundamental interactions into a single mathematical framework.

Hierarchy problem In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.[1] Physicists are unable to explain, for example, why the weak force is 1032 times stronger than gravity. Technical definition[edit] Studying the renormalization in hierarchy problems is difficult, because such quantum corrections are usually power-law divergent, which means that the shortest-distance physics are most important. Because we do not know the precise details of the shortest-distance theory of physics, we cannot even address how this delicate cancellation between two large terms occurs. Therefore, researchers postulate new physical phenomena that resolve hierarchy problems without fine tuning. The Higgs mass[edit]

Renormalization In quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, renormalization is any of a collection of techniques used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities. When describing space and time as a continuum, certain statistical and quantum mechanical constructions are ill defined. To define them, the continuum limit has to be taken carefully. Renormalization establishes a relationship between parameters in the theory when the parameters describing large distance scales differ from the parameters describing small distances.

Round-electron challenge to mainstream physics At last the cautious BBC voices physicists’ majority view that Gravity is not explained by the “Standard Model” of physics (Pallab Ghosh 25 May 2011) – meaning ‘gravitons’ are unreal – in an offhand comment on the electron-is-round story. Modern physics is trying to get to grips with a finite size electron. The egg-shape predicted by the supersymmetry model is close to being excluded by the latest experiments (Jony Hudson et al. at Imperial College). The Kapitsa-Dirac model is also up for question.

Higgs boson The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 each independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate sensationalism.[17][18] In 2013 two of the original researchers, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction[19] (Englert's co-researcher Robert Brout had died in 2011).

Chronostasis The most well-known version of this illusion is known as the stopped-clock illusion, wherein a subject's first impression of the second-hand movement of an analog clock, subsequent to one's directed attention (i.e. saccade) to the clock, is the perception of a slower-than-normal second-hand movement rate: when first observing the second hand it appears to remain stationary for longer than the subsequent periods between movements.[3][4][5][6] This illusion can also occur in the auditory and tactile domain. For instance, a study suggests that when someone listens to a ringing tone through a telephone, while repetitively switching the receiver from one ear to the other, it causes the caller to overestimate the temporal duration between rings.[1] Mechanism of action[edit] A timeline of the sensation and perception of chronostasis within the context of a student in a classroom. This depicts the mechanism of action described above.

Boson In quantum mechanics, a boson (/ˈboʊsɒn/,[1] /ˈboʊzɒn/[2]) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions.[3] The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac[4] to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose[5][6] in developing, with Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.[7] Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the recently discovered Higgs boson, and the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity; composite particles (e.g. mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, mass number = 2), helium-4, or lead-208[Note 1]); and some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).[8]:130 Types[edit]

Graviton Theory[edit] The three other known forces of nature are mediated by elementary particles: electromagnetism by the photon, the strong interaction by the gluons, and the weak interaction by the W and Z bosons. The hypothesis is that the gravitational interaction is likewise mediated by an – as yet undiscovered – elementary particle, dubbed as the graviton. In the classical limit, the theory would reduce to general relativity and conform to Newton's law of gravitation in the weak-field limit.[6][7][8] Gravitons and renormalization[edit] When describing graviton interactions, the classical theory (i.e., the tree diagrams) and semiclassical corrections (one-loop diagrams) behave normally, but Feynman diagrams with two (or more) loops lead to ultraviolet divergences; that is, infinite results that cannot be removed because the quantized general relativity is not renormalizable, unlike quantum electrodynamics.

Boson In quantum mechanics, a boson (/ˈboʊsɒn/,[1] /ˈboʊzɒn/[2]) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions.[3] The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac[4] to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose[5][6] in developing, with Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.[7] Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the recently discovered Higgs boson, and the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity; composite particles (e.g. mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, mass number = 2), helium-4, or lead-208[Note 1]); and some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).[8]:130

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