background preloader

Theory of everything

Theory of everything
A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.[1]:6 Finding a ToE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics. Over the past few centuries, two theoretical frameworks have been developed that, as a whole, most closely resemble a ToE. The two theories upon which all modern physics rests are general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT). GR is a theoretical framework that only focuses on the force of gravity for understanding the universe in regions of both large-scale and high-mass: stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. Through years of research, physicists have experimentally confirmed with tremendous accuracy virtually every prediction made by these two theories when in their appropriate domains of applicability. Historical antecedents[edit] Modern physics[edit] [edit] Related:  the theory of everything

Timeline of the universe | Science Using observatories on the earth and in space, astronomers have been able to study the nature of the cosmos in unprecedented detail. By analysing the motion of distant galaxies, they have discovered that the whole cosmos is expanding under the influence of forces unleashed at its birth in the big bang. Combined with studies of the radiation left over from that primordial explosion, they have found that the universe was born 13.7bn years ago, give or take 200m years. Pinning down the date of creation with such precision is impressive, but scientists have gone much further. 10^-43 seconds Known as the Planck Era, this is the closest that current physics can get to the absolute beginning of time. 10^-35 seconds The so-called Grand Unification Era, at the end of which the superforce begins to break apart into the constituent forces we see today. 10^-32 seconds 10^-11 seconds 10^-6 seconds 200 seconds 300,000 years 200m years 0.5bn - 1bn years 9bn years 9.1bn years

Vacuum energy Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. They are expected to do this everywhere, throughout the Universe. Their behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales. Origin[edit] Summing over all possible oscillators at all points in space gives an infinite quantity. Additional contributions to the vacuum energy come from spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field theory. Implications[edit] [citation needed]

General relativity General relativity, or the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916[1] and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations. Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Einstein's theory has important astrophysical implications. History[edit] Albert Einstein developed the theories of special and general relativity.

The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet © Tomasz P. Szynalski, Antimoon.com This chart contains all the sounds (phonemes) used in the English language. For each sound, it gives: The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners — that is, in A. To print the chart, use the printable PDF version. Does this chart list all the sounds that you can hear in British and American English? No. For example, this page does not list the regular t (heard in this pronunciation of letter) and the flap t (heard in this one) with separate symbols. So this page actually lists phonemes (groups of sounds), not individual sounds. Take the phoneme p in the above chart. Typing the phonetic symbols You won’t find phonetic symbols on your computer’s keyboard. You can use my free IPA phonetic keyboard at ipa.typeit.org. You can also use the ASCII Phonetic Alphabet, which represents IPA symbols with “normal” characters that you can type on your keyboard.

Unveiling the Mystics of Sacred Geometry Sacred Geometry, how can I find the words to describe it? The need for us to speak about Sacred Geometry was dire but as usual the need to be thorough delayed it. So a week after googling “Sacred Geometry” and trolling through a lot of esoteric links, my mind is exploding with information. There is so much more to put in, but let me try compiling what I have watched and learnt and hopefully we shall present a decent overview on this subject. Let me start with the basic, what is sacred geometry? These same laws can be applied to produce visual harmony. Sacred geometric ratios applied to music gives it healing powers to harmonize a body that is out of balance. Nature itself has so much Sacred Geometry to display and in the video itself you would have heard, if you are open to it, its everywhere! From the center of a Sunflower Sacred Geometry can be seen all around us, here we can see it in the center of the Sunflower. Leonardo da vinci drew the Vitruvian man based on the work of Vitruvius.

Quantum gravity Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics. Although a quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, difficulties arise when one attempts to apply the usual prescriptions of quantum field theory to the force of gravity.[3] From a technical point of view, the problem is that the theory one gets in this way is not renormalizable and therefore cannot be used to make meaningful physical predictions. As a result, theorists have taken up more radical approaches to the problem of quantum gravity, the most popular approaches being string theory and loop quantum gravity.[4] Strictly speaking, the aim of quantum gravity is only to describe the quantum behavior of the gravitational field and should not be confused with the objective of unifying all fundamental interactions into a single mathematical framework.

Quantum mechanics Wavefunctions of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations.[1] The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding the electron. Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect. History[edit] In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays. where h is Planck's constant. Coulomb potential.

Doron Swade - Computing History Doron Swade An academic who masterminded an 18-year project to recreate a 19th Century computer, a dedicated nurse and an 84-year old volunteer are among Kingstonians rewarded in the UK 2009 New Year's Honours List. Dr Doron Swade, 64, is a leading academic in computer history and a world renowned expert on the work of English mathematician Charles Babbage and has been awarded an MBE for services to the history of computing. Dr Swade, a former curator at the London Science Museum, said: “I am hugely flattered and very, very grateful. “I've always said honours and acknowledgements are the result of good work and I just try to do good work.” Dr Swade masterminded a project to build a working replica of one of Babbage’s ‘calculating engines’ from the original 19th century plans and negotiated the acquisition of rare computers including a Russian Cold War supercomputer and the last working totalisator in the country for the National Computer Collection. Dr. Doron has curated many exhibitions.

How Does Theta Work | Quantum Theta The scientific basis of ThetaHealing® consists of two main categories, quantum and epigenetic: Quantum StuffWe are quantum beings. This simple fact is the beginning of understanding how and why ThetaHealing® works. We are not merely physical beings, made of matter. Scientists proved early in the last century that classical physics — that is, the theory that we are made up of solid sub-atomic particles whose activities can be understood and reliably predicted — is not entirely accurate. An important concept in both the quantum and the ThetaHealing® worlds is the observer effect: the fact that, as proven to surprised scientists in studies, the act of observation itself has a measurable effect on the behavior of sub-atomic particles. One more awesome aspect of quantum change: it is, by definition, fast. Electrons, as you may or may not remember from your high school science classes, orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

Related: