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Atom

Atom
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. Chemical atoms, which in science now carry the simple name of "atom," are minuscule objects with diameters of a few tenths of a nanometer and tiny masses proportional to the volume implied by these dimensions. Etymology History of atomic theory Atomism The idea that matter is made up of discrete units is a very old one, appearing in many ancient cultures such as Greece and India. First evidence-based theory The structure of atoms The physicist J. Structure Subatomic particles Related:  Atomic structure

Elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.[1] Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.[1] A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning "indivisible" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.[1][2] Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. Overview[edit] Main article: Standard Model

Atomic nucleus A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue). In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon has multiple locations at once. The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under Rutherford's direction. The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.75 fm (1.75×10−15 m) for hydrogen (the diameter of a single proton)[2] to about 15 fm for the heaviest atoms, such as uranium. Introduction[edit] History[edit] Etymology[edit] Forces[edit]

Neutron The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle that has the symbol n or n0. Neutrons have no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. With the exception of hydrogen-1, the nucleus of every atom consists of at least one or more of both protons and neutrons. While the bound neutrons in nuclei can be stable (depending on the nuclide), free neutrons are unstable; they undergo beta decay with a mean lifetime of just under 15 minutes (881.5±1.5 s).[5] Free neutrons are produced in nuclear fission and fusion. The neutron has been key to the production of nuclear power. Discovery[edit] In 1920, Ernest Rutherford conceived the possible existence of the neutron.[2][7] In particular, Rutherford considered that the disparity found between the atomic number of an atom and its atomic mass could be explained by the existence of a neutrally charged particle within the atomic nucleus. Proton–neutron model of the nucleus[edit] Intrinsic properties[edit] Free neutron decay[edit]

Parts of an Atom As of July 1, 2013 ThinkQuest has been discontinued. We would like to thank everyone for being a part of the ThinkQuest global community: Students - For your limitless creativity and innovation, which inspires us all. Teachers - For your passion in guiding students on their quest. Partners - For your unwavering support and evangelism. Parents - For supporting the use of technology not only as an instrument of learning, but as a means of creating knowledge. We encourage everyone to continue to “Think, Create and Collaborate,” unleashing the power of technology to teach, share, and inspire. Best wishes, The Oracle Education Foundation

Atomic orbital The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz. The colors show the wave function phase. These are graphs of ψ(x, y, z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a unique set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ℓ, and m, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave mechanics model), a modern framework for visualizing the submicroscopic behavior of electrons in matter. Electron properties[edit] With the development of quantum mechanics, it was found that the orbiting electrons around a nucleus could not be fully described as particles, but needed to be explained by the wave-particle duality. Wave-like properties: Particle-like properties: Formal quantum mechanical definition[edit] Types of orbitals[edit]

Electron History[edit] In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François de Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin. From this, Du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids, vitreous and resinous, that are separated by friction, and that neutralize each other when combined.[17] A decade later Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He gave them the modern charge nomenclature of positive and negative respectively.[18] Franklin thought of the charge carrier as being positive, but he did not correctly identify which situation was a surplus of the charge carrier, and which situation was a deficit.[19] Discovery[edit] A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field[25] Robert Millikan Atomic theory[edit]

Quantum mechanics Wavefunctions of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations.[1] The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding the electron. Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect. History[edit] In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays. where h is Planck's constant.

Physics Various examples of physical phenomena Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.[8] Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.[b] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences[6] while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. History Ancient astronomy Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. Natural philosophy Classical physics Modern physics

Modelling molecular magnets The complete magnetic properties of the prototype molecular magnet Mn12 have been modelled, for the first time, by an international team of researchers. The calculations will be crucial for developing real-world devices from the material, as well as to study fundamental nanoscale quantum-phenomena such as magnetic tunnelling. Single-molecule magnets, such as Mn12, Fe8, Mn4 and V15, are natural ensembles of identical, weakly interacting magnetic nanoparticles that can switch their magnetization between two states, from "spin up" to "spin down" for example. At low temperatures, the magnetic state of the molecule persists even in the absence of a magnetic field. Such a "memory effect" could be exploited to make high-density information storage devices for computing applications and in molecular electronics in general. No 'adjustable parameters' Interactions are important

Lorentz force In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. If a particle of charge q moves with velocity v in the presence of an electric field E and a magnetic field B, then it will experience a force. For any produced force there will be an opposite reactive force. (in SI units). The first derivation of the Lorentz force is commonly attributed to Oliver Heaviside in 1889,[1] although other historians suggest an earlier origin in an 1865 paper by James Clerk Maxwell.[2] Hendrik Lorentz derived it a few years after Heaviside. Equation (SI units)[edit] Charged particle[edit] The force F acting on a particle of electric charge q with instantaneous velocity v, due to an external electric field E and magnetic field B, is given by:[3] in which r is the position vector of the charged particle, t is time, and the overdot is a time derivative. Continuous charge distribution[edit] History[edit]

Subatomic particle In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles smaller than atoms.[1] (although some subatomic particles have mass greater than some atoms). There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which according to current theories are not made of other particles; and composite particles.[2] Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact.[3] In particle physics, the concept of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics. But it also reflects the modern understanding that at the quantum scale matter and energy behave very differently from what much of everyday experience would lead us to expect. Interactions of particles in the framework of quantum field theory are understood as creation and annihilation of quanta of corresponding fundamental interactions. This blends particle physics with field theory. Classification[edit] By statistics[edit] By composition[edit] By mass[edit] Other properties[edit] Textbooks

Chemistry Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.[1][2] Chemistry is chiefly concerned with atoms and molecules and their interactions and transformations, for example, the properties of the chemical bonds formed between atoms to create chemical compounds. As such, chemistry studies the involvement of electrons and various forms of energy in photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures. Preparation and properties of complex substances, such as alloys, polymers, biological molecules, and pharmaceutical agents are considered in specialized fields of chemistry. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology.[3][4] Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.[5] Etymology The word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā (الکیمیاء). Definition

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