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Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913, as a corrective term added to a zero-grounded formula developed by Max Planck in 1900.[1][2] The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie.[1][2] An alternative form of the German term is Nullpunktenergie (without the s). History[edit] In 1900, Max Planck derived the formula for the energy of a single energy radiator, e.g., a vibrating atomic unit:[5] where is Planck's constant, . . Related:  Wikipedia

Daniel Simons Daniel James Simons (born 1969) is a prominent experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois.[1] Simons is most well known for his work on change blindness and inattentional blindness, two surprising examples of how people can be unaware of information right in front of their eyes. His research interests also include visual cognition, perception, memory, attention, and awareness.[2] Biography[edit] Career[edit] Simons received a B.A. in psychology from Carleton College in 1991 and a Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1997. Research[edit] Professor Simons' research has focused on the cognitive underpinnings of our experience of a stable and continuous visual world. Awards[edit] In 2003, Simons won the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contributions to Psychology. References[edit] Books[edit] The Invisible Gorilla (2010) External links[edit]

Vacuum energy Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. They are expected to do this everywhere, throughout the Universe. Their behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales. Origin[edit] Summing over all possible oscillators at all points in space gives an infinite quantity. Additional contributions to the vacuum energy come from spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field theory. Implications[edit] [citation needed]

Inattentional blindness Inattentional blindness, also known as perceptual blindness, is a psychological lack of attention and is not associated with any vision defects or deficits. It may be further defined as the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight. The term was coined by Arien Mack and Irvin Rock in 1992 and was used as the title of their book of the same name, published by MIT press in 1998.[1] Here, they describe the discovery of inattentional blindness and include a collection of procedures used describing the phenomenon.[2] Research on inattentional blindness suggests that the phenomenon can occur in any individual, independent of cognitive deficits. When it simply becomes impossible for one to attend to all the stimuli in a given situation, a temporary blindness effect can take place as a result; that is, individuals fail to see objects or stimuli that are unexpected and quite often salient. Defining criteria[edit] Cognitive capture[edit]

Vacuum catastrophe In cosmology the vacuum catastrophe refers to the disagreement of 107 orders of magnitude between the upper bound upon the vacuum energy density as inferred from data obtained from the Voyager spacecraft of less than 1014 GeV/m3 and the zero-point energy of 10121 GeV/m3 suggested by a naïve application of quantum field theory.[1] This discrepancy has been termed "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics."[2] The magnitude of this discrepancy is entirely beyond the descriptive power of any kind of commonplace comparison. It has been observed that the statement "the universe consists of exactly one elementary particle" is closer to being true, by at least ten orders of magnitude, than the incorrect vacuum-catastrophe prediction. See also[edit] References[edit]

Torus A torus In geometry, a torus (pl. tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a ring torus or simply torus if the ring shape is implicit. In topology, a ring torus is homeomorphic to the Cartesian product of two circles: S1 × S1, and the latter is taken to be the definition in that context. The word torus comes from the Latin word meaning cushion.[1] Geometry[edit] A torus is the product of two circles, in this case the red circle is swept around axis defining the pink circle. Ring torus Horn torus Spindle torus Bottom-halves and cross-sections of the three classes A diagram depicting the poloidal (θ) direction, represented by the red arrow, and the toroidal (ζ or φ) direction, represented by the blue arrow. A torus can be defined parametrically by:[2] where r is the radius of the tube. Topology[edit] Flat torus[edit]

Future and Cosmos: “Vacuum Catastrophe” Should Be Called the Vacuum Miracle We tend to think of science as something that gives us the right answers. Almost always science does give us the right answer. But there is at least one case when science gives us the wrong answer – a really, really wrong answer. The wrong answer given by science is the answer that it gives to the question: how much energy is in a vacuum? A person not familiar with quantum mechanics tends to think of a vacuum as being just empty space. You can get an idea of the modern concept of the vacuum by looking at the animation below. Imagine if there was a weird rule in your living room that every second 10,000 fireflies had to pop into existence, but that each of them would disappear a fraction of a second later. Quantum field theory allows us to calculate how much energy there should be in the vacuum of space because of these virtual particles. How far off is this calculation? This prediction has been repeatedly referred to as the worst prediction in the history of physics.

Renormalization In quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, renormalization is any of a collection of techniques used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities. When describing space and time as a continuum, certain statistical and quantum mechanical constructions are ill defined. To define them, the continuum limit has to be taken carefully. Renormalization establishes a relationship between parameters in the theory when the parameters describing large distance scales differ from the parameters describing small distances. Self-interactions in classical physics[edit] Figure 1. The problem of infinities first arose in the classical electrodynamics of point particles in the 19th and early 20th century. The mass of a charged particle should include the mass-energy in its electrostatic field (Electromagnetic mass). . which becomes infinite in the limit as approaches zero. that makes and restoring factors of and ) turns out to be .

The Tom Bearden Website John Ernst Worrell Keely John Ernst Worrell Keely with a "Keely Engine". John Ernst Worrell Keely (September 3, 1837 – November 18, 1898) was a US inventor from Philadelphia who claimed to have discovered a new motive power which was originally described as "vaporic" or "etheric" force, and later as an unnamed force based on "vibratory sympathy", by which he produced "interatomic ether" from water and air. Despite numerous requests from the stockholders of the Keely Motor Company, which had been established to produce a practicable motor based on his work, he consistently refused to reveal to them the principles on which his motor operated, and also repeatedly refused demands to produce a marketable product by claiming that he needed to perform more experiments. He secured substantial investments from many people, among whom was John Jacob Astor. Biography[edit] Career[edit] Keely's theories[edit] Keely delivered descriptions of the supposed principles of his process on various occasions. Etheric generator[edit]

Dark Energy, Dark Matter Dark Energy, Dark Matter In the early 1990s, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. What Is Dark Energy? More is unknown than is known. One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Another explanation for how space acquires energy comes from the quantum theory of matter. What Is Dark Matter?

Kelvin water dropper Typical setup for the Kelvin Water Dropper. The Kelvin water dropper, invented by British scientist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1867,[1] is a type of electrostatic generator. Kelvin referred to the device as his water-dropping condenser. The apparatus is variously called the Kelvin hydroelectric generator, the Kelvin electrostatic generator, or Lord Kelvin's thunderstorm. Description[edit] A typical setup is shown above. The simple construction makes this device popular in physics education as a laboratory experiment for students. Principles of operation[edit] 1918 drawing Kelvin's original 1867 drawing Original form of the machine. A small initial difference in electric charge between the two buckets, which always exists because the buckets are insulated from each other, is necessary to begin the charging process. Once the right ring has a negative charge, it similarly attracts positive charge into the right-hand stream. Details[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Quantum Fluctuations and Their Energy Matt Strassler [August 29, 2013] In this article I am going to tell you something about how quantum mechanics works, specifically the fascinating phenomenon known as “quantum fluctuations”, and how it applies in a quantum field theory, of which the Standard Model (the equations that we use to predict the behavior of the known elementary particles and forces) is an example. A deep understanding of this phenomenon, and the energy associated with it, will lead us directly to confront what is certainly one of the most dramatic unsolved problem in science: the cosmological constant problem. It will also lead us to the puzzle known as naturalness or the hierarchy problem, though I’ll explain that elsewhere. An aside: in quantum field theory, quantum fluctuations are sometimes called, or attributed to, the “appearance and disappearance of two (or more) `virtual particles‘ “. Quantum fluctuations are deeply tied to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Fluctuations of Quantum Fields However!

Oxyhydrogen Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases. This gaseous mixture is used for torches to process refractory materials and was the first[1] gaseous mixture used for welding. Theoretically, a ratio of 2:1 hydrogen:oxygen is enough to achieve maximum efficiency; in practice a ratio 4:1 or 5:1 is needed to avoid an oxidizing flame.[2] This mixture may also be referred to as knallgas (German; "bang-gas"), although some authors define knallgas to be a generic term for the mixture of fuel with the precise amount of oxygen required for complete combustion, thus 2:1 oxyhydrogen would be called "hydrogen-knallgas".[3] Brown's gas[4] and HHO are fringe science terms for a 2:1 mixture of oxyhydrogen; its proponents claim that it has special properties. Properties[edit] Oxyhydrogen will combust when brought to its autoignition temperature. Production[edit] electrolysis: 2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2 combustion: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O Applications[edit] Lighting[edit] Oxyhydrogen blowpipe[edit]