# Space

A right-handed three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system used to indicate positions in space.(See diagram description for needed correction.) In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space.[4] Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for the shape of space. Philosophy of space Leibniz and Newton In the seventeenth century, the philosophy of space and time emerged as a central issue in epistemology and metaphysics. Newton took space to be more than relations between material objects and based his position on observation and experimentation. Kant Non-Euclidean geometry Gauss and Poincaré Einstein Mathematics Physics Classical mechanics Relativity Cosmology Spatial measurement

More Space Facts - PlanetFacts.net Extremely Interesting Facts on the Planets, Stars and the Universe. If one were to capture and bottle a comet's 10,000 mile vapor trail, the amount of vapor actually present in the bottle would take up less than 1 cubic inch of space. Members of the Dogon tribe in Mali, Africa, for many centuries worshiped a star known today by astronomers as Sirius B. The Dogon people knew its precise elliptical orbit, knew how long it took to revolve around its parent star, Sirius, and were aware that it was made up of materials not found on Earth—all this centuries before modern astronomers had even discovered that Sirius B existed. Deimos, one of the moons of mars, rises and sets twice a day. To an observer standing on Pluto, the sun would appear no brighter than Venus appears in our evening sky.

How Orbits Work What an Orbit Really Is The drawings at the right simplify the physics of orbiting Earth. We see Earth with a huge, tall mountain rising from it. Matter Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound. This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects.[1][2] Manifold The surface of the Earth requires (at least) two charts to include every point. Here the globe is decomposed into charts around the North and South Poles. The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows more complicated structures to be described and understood in terms of the relatively well-understood properties of Euclidean space. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. Manifolds may have additional features.

The Coming Age of Space Colonization - James Fallows A crescent earth rises above the lunar horizon. (NASA/Reuters) The subject of our discussion was the future of space travel. Below is an extended-play version of the interview, with extra questions and themes. James Fallows: Space exploration seems to have lost its hold on the public imagination, compared with a generation ago. Eric Anderson: I think absolutely they are right to feel a little bit disappointed. Low Earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude between 160 kilometers (99 mi), with an orbital period of about 88 minutes, and 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi), with an orbital period of about 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 kilometers (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss.[1][2] With the exception of the manned lunar flights of the Apollo program, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO (or were suborbital). The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11 with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometers (853.8 mi).

Information The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding textual computer information In Thermodynamics, information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system that can interpret the information. Etymology The English word was apparently derived from the Latin stem (information-) of the nominative (informatio): this noun is derived from the verb informare (to inform) in the sense of "to give form to the mind", "to discipline", "instruct", "teach".

Half-space (geometry) A half-space can be either open or closed. An open half-space is either of the two open sets produced by the subtraction of a hyperplane from the affine space. A closed half-space is the union of an open half-space and the hyperplane that defines it. A half-space may be specified by a linear inequality, derived from the linear equation that specifies the defining hyperplane. Orbits in Space Atmospheric Re-entry The Kepler formula also applies to elliptical motion, provided R is replaced by the semi-major axis a of the orbit. Over time however orbits stray from exact Keplerian ellipses because to additional forces, such as the attraction of the Moon and the Sun. For elongated ellipses, this causes the lowest point in the orbit ("perigee") to move up and down, ultimately reaching the atmosphere and causing satellite to be lost.

Knowledge Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgment in human beings.[2] Theories of knowledge In contrast to this approach, Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's paradox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." [5] He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction.

Hyperplane Technical description Dihedral angles Special types of hyperplanes HSF > Living In Space > SPACE WEAR Astronauts wear various types of clothing for all aspects of a mission to space. Whether preparing for launch, working inside the space shuttle or the space station, working outside in space, or landing back on Earth, astronauts wear the proper garments for both comfort and protection. Space Station Clothing International Space Station crewmembers choose the shirts, shorts and pants they will wear in space months before they are scheduled to launch. Sense Five senses and the respective sensory organs An allegory of five senses. Still Life by Pieter Claesz, 1623. The painting illustrates the senses through musical instruments, a compass, a book, food and drink, a mirror, incense and an open perfume bottle. The tortoise could be a possible illustration of touch or an allusion to the opposite, screening of or shielding the senses (the tortoise isolating in its shell) A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

Boundary representation Coachwork example generated using the B-Rep model. Notice that the surface areas are stitched together. In solid modeling and computer-aided design, boundary representation—often abbreviated as B-rep or BREP—is a method for representing shapes using the limits.

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