Addicting Info – The U.S. Navy Just Announced The End Of Big Oil And No One Noticed Surf’s up! The Navy appears to have achieved the Holy Grail of energy independence – turning seawater into fuel: After decades of experiments, U.S. Navy scientists believe they may have solved one of the world’s great challenges: how to turn seawater into fuel.…The new fuel is initially expected to cost around $3 to $6 per gallon, according to the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, which has already flown a model aircraft on it. Curiously, this doesn’t seem to be making much of a splash (no pun intended) on the evening news. This technology is in its infancy and it’s already this cheap? I expect the GOP to go ballistic over this and try to legislate it out of existence. There are two other aspects to this story that have not been brought up yet: 1. If we pull out massive amounts of CO2, even if we burn it again, not all of it will make it back into the water. 2. And if we “leak” the technology? Why this is not a huge major story mystifies me.
Research reveals the real cause of death for some starburst galaxies Like hedonistic rock stars that live by the "better to burn out than to fade away" credo, certain galaxies flame out in a blaze of glory. Astronomers have struggled to grasp why these young "starburst" galaxies—ones that are very rapidly forming new stars from cold molecular hydrogen gas up to 100 times faster than our own Milky Way—would shut down their prodigious star formation to join a category scientists call "red and dead." Starburst galaxies typically result from the merger or close encounter of two separate galaxies. "To form stars you need dense gas," said Gregory Rudnick, associate professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas. Now, Rudnick and a team of fellow astronomers have solved the mystery of why compact, young galaxies become galactic ruins. "As the stars form, the most massive and hot ones emit enough light that the pressure of this light on the gas can push the gas out of the galaxy," Rudnick said.
Molecules in a fluid not randomly arranged FOM PhD researcher Matthijs Panman and his colleagues from the University of Amsterdam have demonstrated that molecules in liquid alcohol are not randomly oriented with respect to each other. The angle between the oxygen-hydrogen bonds of two neighbouring alcohol molecules is usually about 120 degrees. This discovery refutes the commonly held idea that molecules in a liquid are randomly arranged. The researchers published their work on 12 November 2014 in Physical Review Letters. In school we learn that molecules in a liquid are randomly arranged. But is that completely correct? Light and vibrations The FOM researchers, working at the Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences in Amsterdam and in collaboration with the Amsterdam Center for Multiscale Modeling, devised an experiment to observe the local ordering. The light used is polarised, which means that the electric field of the light has a fixed direction. 120 degrees Explore further: Directly visualizing hydrogen bonds
Engineers efficiently 'mix' light at the nanoscale The race to make computer components smaller and faster and use less power is pushing the limits of the properties of electrons in a material. Photonic systems could eventually replace electronic ones, but the fundamentals of computation, mixing two inputs into a single output, currently require too much space and power when done with light. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have engineered a nanowire system that could pave the way for this ability, combining two light waves to produce a third with a different frequency and using an optical cavity to amplify the intensity of the output to a usable level. The study was led by Ritesh Agarwal, professor of materials science and engineering in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science, and Ming-Liang Ren, a post-doctoral researcher in his lab. It was published in Nature Communications. Current computer systems represent bits of information—the 1's and 0's of binary code—with electricity.
Does dark magma lurk in deep Earth? (Phys.org) —A key to understanding Earth's evolution is to look deep into the lower mantle—a region some 400 to 1,800 miles (660 to 2,900 kilometers) below the surface, just above the core. Data have suggested that deep, hot, fluid magma oceans of melted silicates, a major Earth material, may reside above the core-mantle boundary. Researchers including Carnegie's Alex Goncharov have found, using high-pressure experiments with a proxy material, that the deep Earth materials conduct far less heat under increasing pressure than previously thought. The research is published in the November 11, 2014 issue of Nature Communications. Since scientists can't sample the Earth's deep interior, they study how seismic waves travel through the Earth to determine whether material is solid, liquid, or has other features. Heat transfer occurs at a higher rate across materials of high thermal conductivity than across materials of low thermal conductivity.
Half of stars lurk outside galaxies NASA ESA/Hubble SM4 ERO Team Collisions between galaxies can kick stars out into intergalactic space. Astronomers have spotted a faint cosmic glow, unseen until now, that may come from stars that float adrift between galaxies. “There might be people living out there, out in the middle of cold dark space, that don't have a Milky Way,” says Harvey Moseley, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The stars were probably tossed there when galaxies collided. The findings come from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), which flew briefly into space in 2010 and 2012 aboard a sounding rocket. CIBER was designed to look for fluctuations in infrared light to hunt for signs of some of the first galaxies that formed in the Universe. But when Zemcov and his colleagues began to sift through CIBER’s data, they realized that the light it captured was not nearly red enough to have come from ancient galaxies.
Dark matter may be massive: Theorists suggest the Standard Model may account for the stuff The physics community has spent three decades searching for and finding no evidence that dark matter is made of tiny exotic particles. Case Western Reserve University theoretical physicists suggest researchers consider looking for candidates more in the ordinary realm and, well, more massive. Dark matter is unseen matter, that, combined with normal matter, could create the gravity that, among other things, prevents spinning galaxies from flying apart. Physicists calculate that dark matter comprises 27 percent of the universe; normal matter 5 percent. Instead of WIMPS, weakly interacting massive particles, or axions, which are weakly interacting low-mass particles, dark matter may be made of macroscopic objects, anywhere from a few ounces to the size of a good asteroid, and probably as dense as a neutron star, or the nucleus of an atom, the researchers suggest. The Macros, as Starkman and Jacobs call them, would not only dwarf WIMPS and axions, but differ in an important way.
Speed of light not so constant after all Light doesn’t always travel at the speed of light. A new experiment reveals that focusing or manipulating the structure of light pulses reduces their speed, even in vacuum conditions. A paper reporting the research, posted online at arXiv.org and accepted for publication, describes hard experimental evidence that the speed of light, one of the most important constants in physics, should be thought of as a limit rather than an invariable rate for light zipping through a vacuum. “It’s very impressive work,” says Robert Boyd, an optical physicist at the University of Rochester in New York. Researchers led by optical physicist Miles Padgett at the University of Glasgow demonstrated the effect by racing photons that were identical except for their structure. The speed of light in a vacuum, usually denoted c, is a fundamental constant central to much of physics, particularly Einstein’s theory of relativity. “I’m not surprised the effect exists,” Boyd says.
DNA Nanotech: The First Large DNA Crystals | Loony Labs DNA is the stuff of life as we know it, but it is the potential as a programmable material platform that could spawn entire new and revolutionary nanodevices in computer science, microscopy, biology, and more. Researchers have been working to master the ability to coax DNA molecules to self assemble into the precise shapes and sizes needed in order to fully realize these nanotechnology dreams. A dream that been going on for 20 years now and was just realized. Scientists have tried to design large DNA crystals with precisely prescribed depth and complex features — a design quest just fulfilled as I mentioned above. The team built 32 DNA crystals with precisely-defined depth and an assortment of sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) features. The team used their “DNA-brick self-assembly” method, which was first unveiled in 2012, when they created more than 100 3D complex nanostructures about the size of viruses. What happens in the Lab doesn't have to stay in the Lab: Like this: Related
Fake Art Can Be Detected Because of Nuclear Bombs Detonated in 1945 | Broken Secrets November 20, 2012 at 2:00 am Chad Upton By Chad Upton | Editor Art forgers have become experts at creating the types of paints and canvases used during popular and valuable art periods, to the point that art experts may not be able to distinguish a fake from the real thing. But, Dr Elena Basner, a long time art curator, worked with scientists to create a much better way to detect forged oil paintings. Prior to the first nuclear bomb detonation in July of 1945, isotopes such as strontium-90 and cesium-137 simply did not exist in nature. Since those isotopes didn’t exist in nature prior to 1945, paintings created prior to 1945 could not contain them originally. 550 nuclear bombs were detonated from 1945 to 1963, when most nations agreed not to test nuclear weapons any longer. If someone is trying to pass a work that is dated prior to 1945, but it contains these isotopes, it is almost certainly a fake. Broken Secrets | Facebook | Twitter | Email | Kindle Like this: Like Loading...
Matter will be created from light within a year, claim scientists | Science Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months. The theory underpinning the idea was first described 80 years ago by two physicists who later worked on the first atomic bomb. At the time they considered the conversion of light into matter impossible in a laboratory. But in a report published on Sunday, physicists at Imperial College London claim to have cracked the problem using high-powered lasers and other equipment now available to scientists. "We have shown in principle how you can make matter from light," said Steven Rose at Imperial. The scientists are not on the verge of a machine that can create everyday objects from a sudden blast of laser energy. The original idea was written down by two US physicists, Gregory Breit and John Wheeler, in 1934. But Breit and Wheeler had no expectations that their theory would be proved any time soon.
Physicists create lasers that switch on and off at world record speed Scientists have designed a record-breaking laser that accelerates the interaction between light and matter by ten times. Reporting in the journal Nature Physics, physicists from Imperial College London and the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, in Germany, used semiconductor nanowires made of zinc oxide and placed them on a silver surface to create ultra-fast lasers. By using silver rather than a conventional glass surface, the scientists were able to shrink their nanowire lasers down to just 120 nanometres in diameter - around a thousandth the diameter of human hair. When we first started working on this, I would have been happy to speed up switching speeds to a picosecond, which is one trillionth of a second. – Dr Rupert Oulton Department of Physics The physicists were able to shrink the laser by using surface plasmons, which are wave-like motions of excited electrons found at the surface of metals. Ultrafast laser response time REFERENCE: Oulton, R.