Star lifting Star lifting is any of several hypothetical processes by which a highly advanced civilization (at least Kardashev-II) could remove a substantial portion of a star's matter in a controlled manner for other uses. The term appears to have been coined by David Criswell. Stars have deep gravity wells, so the energy required for such operations is large. For example, lifting solar material from the surface of the Sun to infinity requires 2.1 × 1011 J/kg. Methods for lifting material Thermal-driven outflow A mechanism for "harvesting" solar wind (RC = ring current, MN = magnetic nozzles, J = plasma jet). The simplest system for star lifting would increase the rate of solar wind outflow by directly heating small regions of the star's atmosphere, using any of a number of different means to deliver energy such as microwave beams, lasers, or particle beams – whatever proved to be most efficient for the engineers of the system. "Huff-n-Puff" Centrifugal acceleration
Kardashev scale The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. A Type I civilization uses only resources available on its home planet, Type II harnesses all needed energy from its local star, and Type III of its galaxy. The scale is only hypothetical, but it puts energy consumption in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. Various extensions of the scale have been proposed since, from a wider range of power levels (types 0, IV and V) to the use of metrics other than pure power. Definition Type I "Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth, with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts) Type II Type III "A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy, with energy consumption at ≈4×1044 erg/sec
11 of the Weirdest Solutions to the Fermi Paradox Most people take it for granted that we have yet to make contact with an extraterrestrial civilization. Trouble is, the numbers don’t add up. Our Galaxy is so old that every corner of it should have been visited many, many times over by now. No theory to date has satisfactorily explained away this Great Silence, so it’s time to think outside the box. There's no shortage of solutions to the Fermi Paradox. But for the purposes of this discussion, we’re going to look at some of the more bizarre and arcane solutions to the Fermi Paradox. 1. Though it sounds like something from a Twilight Zone episode, it’s quite possible that we’re stuck inside some kind of celestial cage. This idea was first proposed by John Ball in 1973, who argued that extraterrestrial intelligent life may be almost ubiquitous, but that the “apparent failure of such life to interact with us may be understood in terms of the hypothesis that they have set us aside as part of a wilderness area or zoo.” 2. And why not? 3.
Speculations on Future Stellar Engineering Warm-Blooded Plants and Freeze-Dried Fish by Freeman J. Dyson At that time most of the shuttle missions were carrying unmanned satellites into orbit for various purposes -- some scientific, some commercial, and some military. These launching jobs could just as well have been done automatically. Only a few of the shuttle missions really need people on board, to do experiments or to repair the Hubble Space Telescope, for example. After failing to eviscerate the shuttle, I wandered into the museum of the Johnson Space Center, where there is a collection of rocks that astronauts brought back from the Moon. It seemed like a miracle. Things have changed since then. The Europa Ocean NOTHER place where life might now be flourishing is in a deep ocean on Jupiter's satellite Europa. To land a spacecraft on Europa, with the heavy equipment needed to penetrate the ice and explore the ocean directly, would be a formidable undertaking. Freeze-dried fish orbiting Jupiter is a fanciful notion, but nature in the biological realm has a tendency to be fanciful.
Asteroid Mining: The Future Is Built In Space Asteroid mining may sound like a far future technology or science fiction. However, according to the people at Planetary Resources, they believe we will soon be able to mine near Earth approaching asteroids for water and minerals. According to the Planetary Resources website there are at least 9000 near Earth asteroids presently and 1000 more being discovered every year. Exponential growth in technology and innovation could make astroid mining very likely in the near future. You may recognize a few of the names associated with Planetary Resources. The most exciting aspect of mining asteroids is the ability to mine, manufacture and engineer all on site. Planetary Resources mission statement: “Planetary Resources mission is clear: apply commercial, innovative techniques to explore space. [youtube responsive=true id="7fYYPN0BdBw" align="left"] Future Implications: The mining of near Earth asteroids could allow humanity to literally create an “interplanetary highway”. Like this article?
Stellar Middle Age Mars sample return mission Sample return concept A Mars sample return mission (MSR) would be a spaceflight mission to collect rock and dust samples from Mars and to return them to Earth. Sample return would be a very powerful type of exploration, because analysis is freed from the time, budget, and space constraints of spacecraft sensors. All of Earth's laboratories could potentially study a sample. According to Louis Friedman, Executive Director of The Planetary Society, a Mars sample return mission is often described by the planetary science community as the "holy grail" of robotic space missions, due to its high expected scientific return-on-investment. Over time, several missions were planned but none of the proposed missions got beyond the planning phase. MSR was the highest priority Flagship Mission proposed for NASA by the Planetary Decadal Survey 2013-2022: The Future of Planetary Science. Scientific value History SCIM NASA-ESA plan NASA proposals Additional plans
The Asteroid Mining Company – Mission There are near-limitless numbers of asteroids and more being discovered every year. More than 1,500 are as easy to reach as the Moon and are in similar orbits as Earth. Asteroids are filled with precious resources, everything from water to platinum. Harnessing valuable minerals from a practically infinite source will provide stability on Earth, increase humanity’s prosperity, and help establish and maintain human presence in space. Our Vision Planetary Resources is bringing the natural resources of space within humanity’s economic sphere of influence, propelling our future into the 21st century and beyond. Asteroids are the low-hanging fruit of the Solar System. Low cost commercial robotic spacecraft will explore asteroids and determine their position, composition, and accessibility of resources. Asteroid mining will allow the delivery of resources to the point of need, be it a fuel depot orbiting the Earth, or elsewhere in the Solar System. Our Mission
Stellar Death The Dialectic of the Nature-Society-System | Fuchs | tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society Abstract There are four logical possibilities for conceiving the relationship of nature and society: the reduction of society to nature, the projection of nature into society, dualism, and a nature-society-dialectic. This differentiation results in four different approaches. Keywords nature; society; social theory O'Neill cylinder Artist's depiction of a pair of O'Neill cylinders The O'Neill cylinder (also called an O'Neill colony) is a space settlement design proposed by American physicist Gerard K. O'Neill in his 1976 book The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space. O'Neill proposed the colonization of space for the 21st century, using materials extracted from the Moon and later from asteroids. Interior view, showing alternating land and window stripes Background While teaching undergraduate physics at Princeton University, O'Neill set his students the task of designing large structures in outer space, with the intent of showing that living in space could be desirable. O'Neill's project was not completely without precedent. Islands One, Two and Three O'Neill created three reference designs, nicknamed "islands": Island One Island Two Island Two is also spherical in design, and is also 1,600 meters in diameter. Island Three Design Artificial gravity Sunlight Gallery