Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and hence captures most or all of its power output. It was first described by Freeman Dyson. Dyson speculated that such structures would be the logical consequence of the long-term survival and escalating energy needs of a technological civilization, and proposed that searching for evidence of the existence of such structures might lead to the detection of advanced intelligent extraterrestrial life. Different types of Dyson spheres correlate with information on the Kardashev scale. Since then, other variant designs involving building an artificial structure or series of structures to encompass a star have been proposed in exploratory engineering or described in science fiction under the name "Dyson sphere". Origin of concept Feasibility Some ideas to build a fixed-in-place 'Dyson sphere' are currently beyond humanity's engineering capacity. Variants Dyson swarm Dyson bubble
Related: Stellar Engineering
Star liftingStar lifting is any of several hypothetical processes by which a highly advanced civilization (at least Kardashev-II) could remove a substantial portion of a star's matter in a controlled manner for other uses. The term appears to have been coined by David Criswell. Stars have deep gravity wells, so the energy required for such operations is large. For example, lifting solar material from the surface of the Sun to infinity requires 2.1 × 1011 J/kg. Methods for lifting material Thermal-driven outflow A mechanism for "harvesting" solar wind (RC = ring current, MN = magnetic nozzles, J = plasma jet). The simplest system for star lifting would increase the rate of solar wind outflow by directly heating small regions of the star's atmosphere, using any of a number of different means to deliver energy such as microwave beams, lasers, or particle beams – whatever proved to be most efficient for the engineers of the system. "Huff-n-Puff" Centrifugal acceleration
Free Online Course Materials | CoursesTraditional concept spaceship environment illustrations by MANCHUI wanted to post the rest of these amazing images from Philippe while he still had the header. You can buy his book HERE. Happy Thanksgiving! Keywords: traditional acrylic on paper science fiction illustrations by philippe bouchet manchu professional artist residing in france new book titled manchu starships published printed by delcourt/serieb editions publications
AntimatterIn particle physics, antimatter is material composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but have opposite charge and other particle properties such as lepton and baryon number. Encounters between particles and antiparticles lead to the annihilation of both, giving rise to varying proportions of high-energy photons (gamma rays), neutrinos, and lower-mass particle–antiparticle pairs. Setting aside the mass of any product neutrinos, which represent released energy which generally continues to be unavailable, the end result of annihilation is a release of energy available to do work, proportional to the total matter and antimatter mass, in accord with the mass-energy equivalence equation, E=mc2. Antiparticles bind with each other to form antimatter just as ordinary particles bind to form normal matter. For example, a positron (the antiparticle of the electron) and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom. History of the concept Notation Positrons
Kardashev scaleThe Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. A Type I civilization uses all available resources on its home planet, Type II harnesses all the energy of its star, and Type III of its galaxy. The scale is only hypothetical, but it puts energy consumption in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashev (Kardashyov). Definition Type I "Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth, with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts) Type II "A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star (for example, the stage of successful construction of a Dyson sphere), "with energy consumption at ≈4×1033 erg/sec Type III Current status of human civilization Energy development Criticism
Speculations on Future Stellar EngineeringHome ENG - Leonardo da Vinci | OFFICIAL WEBSITEHere is a new way for you to engage history and culture. This portal, the exhibitions, publications and everything involved in the “Leonardo3” project are the result of research activities and work carried out by L3’s founding partners, Mario Taddei and Edoardo Zanon. Leonardo3 (L3) is an innovative media company (research laboratory, creation of exhibitions and museums; editorial, television and multi-media projects; publishing house). Our mission is to study, interpret and make our artistic and scientific heritage available and enjoyable to the general public through the use of innovative techniques. In our work, we place particular importance on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, hence the “3” in the name Leonardo3. As part of our efforts to promote the work of da Vinci, we have created a digital version of the Codex Atlanticus.
Fusion powerThe Sun is a natural fusion reactor. Fusion power is the energy generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions, two light atomic nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus (in contrast with fission power). Background Binding energy for different atoms. Mechanism Fusion happens when two (or more) nuclei come close enough for the strong nuclear force to exceed the electrostatic force and pull them together. Theoretically, any atom could be fused, if enough pressure and temperature was applied. Mankind has studied many high energy fusion reactions, using particles beams. These are fired at a target. Cross Section The fusion reaction rate increases rapidly with temperature until it maximizes and then gradually drops off. where: Lawson criterion This equation shows that energy varies with the temperature, density, speed of collision, and fuel used. η, is the efficiency with which the plant captures energy Density, Temperature, Time: ntτ Other
Yotta-Yotta is the largest unit prefix in the International System of Units (SI), denoting a factor of 1024 or 1000000000000000000000000. It has the unit symbol Y. The prefix name is derived from the Greek οκτώ (októ), meaning eight, because it is equal to 10008. It was added to the SI in 1991. Usage examples: The mass of the Earth is 5972.6 Yg.The mass of the oceans is about 1.4 Yg.The total power output of the Sun is approximately 385 YW.The observable universe is estimated to be 880 Ym in diameter.A 200 ml glass of water contains 6.66 Y water molecules.One yottabyte is a unit of information or computer storage that is approximately 1.2 septillion bytes.  See also References Jump up ^ "Resolution 4 of the 19th CGPM (Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures)". External links BIPM website
Stellar Middle AgeNeurotheology: This Is Your Brain On ReligionPrinciples of NeurotheologyBy Andrew B. NewbergPaperback, 284 pagesAshgateList price: $29.95 "Neurotheology" is a unique field of scholarship and investigation that seeks to understand the relationship specifically between the brain and theology, and more broadly between the mind and religion. If neurotheology is to be considered a viable field going forward, it requires a set of clear principles that can be generally agreed upon and supported by both the theological or religious perspective and the scientific one as well. It is important to infuse throughout the principles of neurotheology the notion that neurotheology requires an openness to both the scientific as well as the spiritual perspectives. In short, for neurotheology to be successful, science must be kept rigorous and religion must be kept religious. When considering the primary reasons for developing neurotheology as a field, we can consider four foundational goals for scholarship in this area. 1. 2. 3. 4.
Energy developmentContemporary industrial societies use primary and secondary energy sources for transportation and the production of many manufactured goods. Also, large industrial populations have various generation and delivery services for energy distribution and end-user utilization.[note 4] This energy is used by people who can afford the cost to live under various climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, along with the convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution sources and availability of domestic energy sources. Thousands of people in society are employed in the energy industry, of which subjectively influence and impact behaviors. Types of energy Open System Model (basics) Primary : They are found in nature: wind, water, solar,[note 12] wood, coal, oil, nuclear.Secondary : Are those obtained from primary energy sources: electricity, gas. Fossil fuels Nuclear