Understanding Plagiarism: School of Education, Indiana University at Bloomington skip navigation Education Home Understanding Plagiarism We now have two resources for learning about plagiarism: The Indiana University Definition Overview: when and how to give credit; recommendations; decision flowchart Plagiarism Cases: links to Web sites describing real plagiarism cases Examples: word-for-word and paraphrasing plagiarism -- 5 examples each Practice with feedback: identifying plagiarism -- 10 items Test & Certificate: if you pass the test, you can print the web page which displays your confirmation certificate Resources: Web sites, books, dictionary links, references Return to top YOU ARE HERE: IU > Bloomington > School of Education
Normality (behavior) Although it is difficult to define normality, since it is a flexible concept, the existence of these ramifications also makes it an important definition. The study of what is normal is called normatology – this field attempts to develop an operational definition distinguishing between normality and abnormality (or pathology). The general question of 'What is normal?' is discussed in many fields, including philosophy, psychology and sociology. The most comprehensive attempt to distinguish normality from abnormality comes from clinical psychology, in the Diagnostics and Statistics Manual. Normality has been functionally and differentially defined by a vast number of disciplines, so there is not one single definition. In general, 'normal' refers to a lack of significant deviation from the average. When people are made more aware of a social norm, particularly a descriptive norm (a norm describing what is done), their behaviour changes to become closer to that norm.
Five principles for research ethics Not that long ago, academicians were often cautious about airing the ethical dilemmas they faced in their research and academic work, but that environment is changing today. Psychologists in academe are more likely to seek out the advice of their colleagues on issues ranging from supervising graduate students to how to handle sensitive research data, says George Mason University psychologist June Tangney, PhD. "There has been a real change in the last 10 years in people talking more frequently and more openly about ethical dilemmas of all sorts," she explains. Indeed, researchers face an array of ethical requirements: They must meet professional, institutional and federal standards for conducting research with human participants, often supervise students they also teach and have to sort out authorship issues, just to name a few. Here are five recommendations APA's Science Directorate gives to help researchers steer clear of ethical quandaries: 1. The same rules apply to students. 2. 3. 4.
Scientific Integrity: Fueling Innovation, Building Public Trust Posted by John P. Holdren on December 17, 2010 at 02:21 PM EDT Ed. Note: Cross-posted from the White House blog On March 9, 2009, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum on Scientific Integrity emphasizing the importance of science in guiding Administration decisions and the importance of ensuring that the public trusts the science behind those decisions. Today, in response to the President’s request, I am issuing a Memorandum to the Heads of Departments and Agencies that provides further guidance to Executive Branch leaders as they implement Administration policies on scientific integrity. It’s important to recognize that, although this Memorandum is new, scientific integrity has been a White House priority since Day One of this Administration. John P.
Abnormal Psychology by Saul McLeod published 2008, updated 2014 Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society. There is evidence that some psychological disorders are more common than was previously thought. Depending on how data are gathered and how diagnoses are made, as many as 27% of some population groups may be suffering from depression at any one time (NIMH, 2001; data for older adults). There are many ways that abnormality can be defined. Statistical Infrequency Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual. For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. However this definition obviously has limitations, it fails to recognize the desirability of the particular behavior. Violation of Social Norms Failure to Function Adequately Behavioral
Ethical Issues in Psychology Find information on ethical issues faced by treatment providers and researchers and well as facts concerning laws and historic cases in psychology. Key Components of Ethical Research in PsychologyWhen conducting psychology research, there are several important standards that must be observed in order to protect study participants. Learn more about these factors and how they impact ethics in psychology. Ethical Principles of PsychologistsAmerican Psychological Association (APA) offers useful information on ethics in both research and therapy, as well as an ethics code of conduct. Research With Animals in PsychologyWhile a great deal of psychology research uses human participants, animal research continues to be important in psycholoy. The Stanford Prison ExperimentIn the summer of 1971, researchers at Stanford conducted a simulation of prison life and the results were astounding.
Abnormal Psychology Question: What Is Abnormal Psychology? Answer: Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with psychopathology and abnormal behavior. Understanding Abnormal Psychology In order to understand abnormal psychology, it is essential to first understand what we mean by the term "abnormal." But are we talking about the norms of a particular group, gender or age? It is important to note that the distinctions between normal and abnormal are not synonymous with good or bad. When you think about abnormal psychology, rather than focus on the distinction between what is normal and what is abnormal, focus instead on the level of distress or disruption that a troubling behavior might cause. Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology There are a number of different perspectives used in abnormal psychology. Behavioral: The behavioral approach to abnormal psychology focuses on observable behaviors. Types of Psychological Disorders Categories of psychological disorders include:
Ethics & Standards Ethics is central to everything we do whether in research or practice. The Society provides helpful guidelines for researchers, teachers and practitioners. This includes: Newly Launched Resources: Guidance on Teaching and Assessment of Ethical Competence in Psychology Education Plus other policy documents and guidelines, which you may find useful. Our Press Centre offers ethical guidance to journalists and television production companies through the Media Ethics Group. We have developed the following helpful responses to ethical queries received from members.
What is Normal? How Does One Define Abnormal in Psychology? Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology Defined Psychology Psychology is a varried and interesting field. There are many different paths within this field. Some paths such as Industrial and Organisational Psychology are business orriented. Psychology is related to advertising and marketing, education and learning, and myriad other areas. The most well known applications of Psychology are in mental health. What is Abnormal Psychology? No examination of psychology, behavior, personality and mental functioning would be complete without delving into the question of what defines the behaviors of an individual as normal and divides this normality from those behaviors which are considered abnormal. Different Behaviors at Different Times The earliest descriptions of abnormal behavior were drawn from religious ideology and simplistic biological concepts (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009). Perspectives of Psychology The Intersection of Factors Conclusions References Feist, J and Feist, G (2009). Hansell, J and Damour, L (2008). Nevid, J.
Psychology Research Ethics by Saul McLeod published 2007, updated 2015 Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants. This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct. In Britain ethical guidelines for research are published by the British Psychological Society and in America by the American Psychological Association. Moral issues rarely yield a simple, unambiguous, right or wrong answer. On the other hand the investigation could lead to discoveries that benefit the participants themselves or even have the potential to increase the sum of human happiness. Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board (US) or ethics committee (UK) before they are implemented. Informed Consent Debrief
Psychological Disorders I. Defining Abnormality When discussing psychological disorders, the first step is to define what we mean by a disorder. How do we determine that something is wrong psychologically with a person? What constitutes abnormal? It's not as easy a matter as some people might think. Some might say, "Well, that person is odd." II. III. The DSM-IV-TR used a five axis classification system to diagnose disorders and guide their treatment. The DSM-V simplified and streamlined the organization of the previous edition somewhat but in the end did not radically change the functions of the prevvious five axis system. The DSM-5 describes the diagnostic criteria in "chapters" which conform to specfic catgegories of disorders in this fashion: It is noteworthy that under the DSM-V (compared to the DSM-IV-TR): • Bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depression) is now catalogued separately from major depression (also known as unipolar depression). IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Who is vulnerable? X. XI. XII.
The Asch Experiment - Understanding Conformity in Groups By Kendra Cherry Quick Overview: The Asch conformity experiments were a series of psychological experiments conducted by Solomon Asch in the 1950s.The experiments revealed the degree to which a person's own opinions are influenced by those of groups.Asch found people were willing to ignore reality and give an incorrect answer in order to conform to the rest of the group. Do you think of yourself as a conformist or a non-conformist? If you are like most people, you probably believe that you are non-conformist enough to stand up to a group when you know you are right, but conformist enough to blend in with the rest of your peers. Imagine yourself in this situation: You've signed up to participate in a psychology experiment in which you are asked to complete a vision test. Seated in a room with the other participants, you are shown a line segment and then asked to choose the matching line from a group three segments of different lengths. Solomon Asch’s Conformity Experiments Asch’s Procedure: