American Indian Movement Flag of the American Indian Movement The American Indian Movement (AIM) is a Native American advocacy group in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty. The founders included Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Harold Goodsky, Eddie Benton-Banai, and a number of others in the Minneapolis Native American community. Russell Means, born Oglala Lakota, was an early leader in 1970s protests. In October 1972, AIM gathered members from across the country to a protest in Washington, D.C. known as the "Trail of Broken Treaties". AIM gained national attention when it seized the Bureau of Indian Affairs national headquarters and presented a 20-point list of demands to the federal government. Background 1960s Presidents John F. Wallace "Mad Bear" Anderson was a Tuscarora leader in New York in the 1950s. The initial AIM movement Events 1978 2008
Aboriginal Tent Embassy The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is a controversial semi-permanent assemblage claiming to represent the political rights of Aboriginal Australians. It is made up of a group of activists, signs and tents that reside on the lawn of Old Parliament House in Canberra, the Australian capital. It is not considered an official embassy by the Australian Government. History In February 1972 the Aboriginal Tent Embassy presented a list of demands to Parliament: The demands were rejected, and in July 1972, following an amendment to the relevant ordinance, police moved in, removed the tents and arrested eight people. In October 1973, around 70 Aboriginal protesters staged a sit-in on the steps of Parliament House and the Tent Embassy was re-established. In May 1974 the embassy was destroyed in a storm but was re-established in October. In February 1975 Aboriginal activist Charles Perkins negotiated the "temporary" removal of the embassy with the Government, pending Government action on land rights.
Idle No More Background After the May 2, 2011 Canadian Federal election, the federal government led by Stephen Harper proposed a number of omnibus bills introducing numerous legislative changes. While omnibus bills had been presented to parliament by previous governments, the perceived ideological nature of the changes proposed in Bill C-45 played to fears of a right-wing agenda held by the Conservatives, particularly concerning the removal of the term "absolute surrender" in Section 208, among others. A number of these measures drew fire from environmental and First Nations groups. In particular, Bill C-45 overhauled the Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA) of 1882, renaming it the Navigation Protection Act (NPA). The NWPA had mandated an extensive approval and consultation process before construction of any kind could take place in or around any water which could in principle be navigated by any kind of floating craft. Many bills affecting First Nations people have failed to be passed.
American Indian Movement Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir AIM. Drapeau de l'American Indian Movement Occupation du quartier général du Bureau des affaires indiennes[modifier | modifier le code] En automne 1972 un grand nombre d'organisations amérindiennes organisa une marche sur Washington, the trail of broken treaties (la marche des traités non tenus). L'occupation de Wounded Knee[modifier | modifier le code] Le 27 février 1973, environ 200 Amérindiens extérieur à la réserve occupent le comptoir d'échanges de Wounded Knee (Dakota du Sud) dans la Réserve indienne de Pine Ridge, où ils prennent 11 otages. Durant les décennies qui suivirent sa formation, l'AIM manifesta pour la défense des intérêts amérindiens et inspira un certain renouveau culturel. L'AIM apporta aussi son soutien à d'autres causes indigénistes en dehors du territoire des États-Unis. Les différences idéologiques au sein de l'AIM[modifier | modifier le code] Annexes[modifier | modifier le code]
CSIA-Nitassinan Civil Rights Movement - Black History During Reconstruction, blacks took on leadership roles like never before. They held public office and sought legislative changes for equality and the right to vote. In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution gave blacks equal protection under the law. In 1870, the 15th Amendment granted blacks the right to vote. Still, many whites, especially those in the South, were unhappy that people they’d once enslaved were now on a more-or-less equal playing field. To marginalize blacks, keep them separate from whites and erase the progress they’d made during Reconstruction, “Jim Crow” laws were established in the South beginning in the late 19th century. Jim Crow laws weren’t adopted in northern states; however, blacks still experienced discrimination at their jobs or when they tried to buy a house or get an education. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in 1896 when the U.S.
Help:IPA for Hindi and Urdu The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Hindi-Urdu phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindustani. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.Jump up ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu.
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( ); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahatma (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa,—is now used worldwide. Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. Gandhi is commonly, though not officially, considered the Father of the Nation in India. Early life and background Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in his earliest known photo, aged 7, c. 1876 The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. English barrister
American Indian Treaties From 1774 until about 1832, treaties between individual sovereign American Indian nations and the U.S. were negotiated to establish borders and prescribe conditions of behavior between the parties. The form of these agreements was nearly identical to the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War between the U.S. and Great Britain. The negotiations ended in a mutually signed pact which had to be approved by the U.S.Congress. Non-tribal citizens were required to have a passport to cross sovereign Indian lands. From 1832 until 1871, American Indian nations were considered to be domestic, dependent tribes. Negotiated treaties between tribes and the U.S. had to be approved by the U.S. In 1871, the House of Representatives ceased recognition of individual tribes within the U.S. as independent nations with whom the United States could contract by treaty, ending the nearly 100 year old practice of treaty-making between the U.S. and American Indian tribes.
Revendications territoriales En général, il existe deux types de « revendications territoriales » par les Autochtones au Canada : les revendications globales et les revendications particulières. Les revendications globales concernent toujours des terres, mais les revendications particulières peuvent porter sur d'autres sujets. Revendications globales Les revendications globales portent sur la conclusion des traités qui n'est pas encore terminée au Canada. Elles visent des régions du Canada où les droits fonciers des Autochtones n'ont pas encore fait l'objet de traités ni d'autres mesures juridiques. Le groupe autochtone, le Canada et la province ou le territoire négocient alors des traités modernes axés sur l'avenir. Revendications particulières Les revendications particulières portent sur des anciens griefs des Premières nations concernant les obligations du Canada en vertu de traités historiques ou la manière dont il a géré les fonds et les autres biens des Premières nations. Négociations Renseignements disponibles
African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68) The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South. A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. Following the American Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment that ended slavery; the 14th Amendment that gave African Americans citizenship, adding their total population of four million to the official population of southern states for Congressional apportionment; and the 15th Amendment that gave African-American males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time).