Ancient Egypt: Art Fragment of a Painted Floor Plaster, pigment New Kingdom, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1352-1336 B.C. Tell el-Amarna Gift of the Egypt Exploration Society, 1922 OIM 120 At Tell el-Amarna, the capital city of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, the floors of many buildings were brightly painted with naturalistic scenes. Atypical of what we perceive ancient Egyptian art to be, this unusual floor fragment is decorated with cornflowers that appear to sway in the breeze. This emphasis upon nature and movement is a hallmark of the art of Akhenaten's reign. Art was used as a form of communication for those who could not read.
List of Roman deities A vast number of ancient Roman deities are known by name. The most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire. Many of the Romans' own gods remain obscure, known only by name and function, through inscriptions and texts that are often fragmentary—particularly those who belong to the archaic religion of the Romans dating back to the era of kings, the so-called "religion of Numa," perpetuated or revived over the centuries. Some archaic deities have Italic or Etruscan counterparts, as identified both by ancient sources and by modern scholars.
Black Pharaohs In the year 730 B.C., a man by the name of Piye decided the only way to save Egypt from itself was to invade it. Things would get bloody before the salvation came. “Harness the best steeds of your stable,” he ordered his commanders. The magnificent civilization that had built the great pyramids had lost its way, torn apart by petty warlords. For two decades Piye had ruled over his own kingdom in Nubia, a swath of Africa located mostly in present-day Sudan. But he considered himself the true ruler of Egypt as well, the rightful heir to the spiritual traditions practiced by pharaohs such as Ramses II and Thutmose III.
The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Nubia was home to some of Africa’s earliest kingdoms. Known for rich deposits of gold, Nubia was also the gateway through which luxury products like incense, ivory, and ebony traveled from their source in sub-Saharan Africa to the civilizations of Egypt and the Mediterranean. Archers of exceptional skill provided the military strength for Nubian rulers. Kings of Nubia ultimately conquered and ruled Egypt for about a century. Monuments still stand—in modern Egypt and Sudan—at the sites where Nubian rulers built cities, temples, and royal pyramids. Nubians lived in the central Nile valley
Egypt's Golden Empire . New Kingdom . Religion With many local and national gods, Egyptian religion was a natural response to the mysteries of the universe and reflected the worries of everyday life in the Ancient World. Over the last thousand years, scientific discoveries have helped explain the natural world. We know about our bodies, conception and childbirth, and how diseases spread. Aztec Civilization The Aztec Empire flourished between c. 1345 and 1521 CE and, at its greatest extent, covered most of northern Mesoamerica. Aztec warriors were able to dominate their neighbouring states and permit rulers such as Motecuhzoma II to impose Aztec ideals and religion across Mexico. Highly accomplished in agriculture and trade, the last of the great Mesoamerican civilizations was also noted for its art and architecture which ranks amongst the finest ever produced on the continent. The Aztec state is actually the most well documented Mesoamerican civilization with sources including archaeology, native books (codices) and lengthy and detailed accounts from their Spanish conquerors - both by military men and Christian clergy. Historical Overview Sometime around 1100 CE the city-states or altepetl which were spread over central Mexico began to compete with each other for local resources and regional dominance.
Early African civilisations: Ancient Egypt, Nubia and Swahili The Nile Valley and Delta with the ancient Egyptian city names. Source: www.egyptmyway.com Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptian civilisation grew for thousands of years intact because the Nile River Valley and Mediterranean and Red Sea border kept foreigners and their ideas away. The Nile River was very important to Egyptian civilisation. Wonders of the African World - Episodes - Black Kingdoms of the Nile - Retellings Greek traditions told of Memnon, a legendary Nubian king who had fought in the Trojan War; they spoke of Nubia's people, who were the "tallest and handsomest on earth," and whose piety was so great that the gods preferred their offerings to those of all other men. They also knew that historical Nubian kings had once conquered Egypt and ruled it for sixty years and that their dynasty was counted as Egypt's Twenty-fifth. The Greeks, however, did not call these people "Nubians" or "Kushites," as we do today; they called them Aithiopes ("Ethiopians"), which in Greek meant "Burnt-Faced Ones." They knew perfectly well that Nubians were black-skinned, as are the Sudanese of the same regions today. During the 1840s, the great German egyptologist, Karl Richard Lepsius (1810-1884) led an expedition to record the monuments of Egypt and Sudan for the King of Prussia. This was Reisner at his worst.
Ancient Egyptian Religion Religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life. Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, or the worship of many deities, except for during the reign of Akenaton. The Egyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. Some, such as Amun, were worshipped throughout the whole country, while others had only a local following. Aztec Math Decoded, Reveals Woes of Ancient Tax Time April 3, 2008 Today's tax codes are complicated, but the ancient Aztecs likely shared your pain. To measure tracts of taxable land, Aztec mathematicians had to develop their own specialized arithmetic, which has only now been decoded. By reading Aztec records from the city-state of Tepetlaoztoc, a pair of scientists recently figured out the complicated equations and fractions that officials once used to determine the size of land on which tributes were paid. Two ancient codices, written from A.D. 1540 to 1544, survive from Tepetlaoztoc. They record each household and its number of members, the amount of land owned, and soil types such as stony, sandy, or "yellow earth."
Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa Statue of King Senkamanisken Granite gneiss, Gebel Barkal, 640–620 bc (Napatan Period, reign of Senkamanisken). Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition: 23.731 Photography © 2011 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston As branches of the Nile River descend from the highlands of East Africa, they join in a single course and pass through the land of Nubia, in what is now northern Sudan and southern Egypt. The river has always provided life in this arid region as a source of water, food, and transport.