Hyperbolic discounting In economics, hyperbolic discounting is a time-inconsistent model of discounting. The discounted utility approach: Intertemporal choices are no different from other choices, except that some consequences are delayed and hence must be anticipated and discounted (i.e. reweighted to take into account the delay). Given two similar rewards, humans show a preference for one that arrives sooner rather than later. Humans are said to discount the value of the later reward, by a factor that increases with the length of the delay.
Illusions of self-motion Illusions of self-motion refers to a phenomenon that occurs when someone feels like their body is moving when no movement is taking place. One can experience illusory movements of the whole body or of individual body parts, such as arms or legs. Vestibular illusions Vection When a large part of the visual field moves, a viewer feels like they have moved and that the world is stationary. For example, when one is in a train at a station, and a nearby train moves, one can have the illusion that one's own train has moved in the opposite direction. Common sorts of vection include circular vection, where an observer is placed at the center of rotation of a large vertically oriented, rotating drum, usually painted with vertical stripes, linear vection, where an observer views a field that either approaches or recedes, and roll vection, where an observer views a patterned disk rotating around his or her line of sight.
An All Purpose Candle Spell This is a quick, uncomplicated ritual designed to be used for all positive purposes. You'll need one candle of the appropriate color, one holder and matches. When you are ready to begin, hold the candle between the palms of your hands.Breathe deeply. Visualize your goal.Push personal, programmed power into the candle between your hands.Feel the energy streaming into it.Say appropriate words if you wish, simply stating what you need to occur.Place the candle in its holder.Strike a match above the candle and draw down the flame toward the candle.Light the wick,Put the still flaming match into a heat-proof container (or extinguish its flame with a quick flip of the wrist).Hold your hands around the candle's flame.Feel the energy.Visualize strongly.Leave the area, let the candle do its work. (put the candle in a safe place before leaving it)
Applied kinesiology Applied kinesiology (AK) is a technique in alternative medicine claimed to be able to diagnose illness or choose treatment by testing muscles for strength and weakness. Applied kinesiologists are often chiropractors, but they may also be naturopathic physicians, physicians, nurses, physical therapists, or veterinarians. According to their guidelines on allergy diagnostic testing, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology stated there is “no evidence of diagnostic validity” of applied kinesiology, and another study has shown that as an evaluative method, AK "is no more useful than random guessing", and the American Cancer Society has said that "scientific evidence does not support the claim that applied kinesiology can diagnose or treat cancer or other illness". Applied kinesiology, as described above, should not be confused with kinesiology, which is the scientific study of human movement. History and current use
Herd behavior Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. The term pertains to the behavior of animals in herds, flocks, schools, demonstrations, riots and general strikes, sporting events, religious gatherings, episodes of mob violence and everyday decision-making, judgment and opinion-forming. Raafat, Chater and Frith proposed an integrated approach to herding, describing two key issues, the mechanisms of transmission of thoughts or behavior between individuals and the patterns of connections between them. They suggested that bringing together diverse theoretical approaches of herding behavior illuminates the applicability of the concept to many domains, ranging from cognitive neuroscience to economics. In animals A group of animals fleeing from a predator shows the nature of herd behavior.
Motion sickness Motion sickness or kinetosis, also known as travel sickness, is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement. Depending on the cause, it can also be referred to as seasickness, car sickness, simulation sickness or airsickness. Cause The most common hypothesis for the cause of motion sickness is that it functions as a psychological defense mechanism against neurotoxins. The area postrema in the brain is responsible for inducing vomiting when poisons are detected, and for resolving conflicts between vision and balance.
Probability Magic(k), Possible Magic(k), and the Big Magics It was very different when the masters of the science sought immortality and power; such views, although futile, were grand; but now the scene was changed. The ambition of the inquirer seemed to limit itself to the annihilation of those visions on which my interest in science was chiefly founded. I was required to exchange chimeras of boundless grandeur for realities of little worth. – From Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein The most popular view of magic, the view we all started our lives with regardless of who we are, is that magic involves being able to do what shouldn’t be possible. Usually this involves the big magicks, the stuff that nobody seems powerful enough to do.
Kinesiology A series of images that represent research (left) and practice (right) in the field of kinesiology. Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; methods of rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy; and sport and exercise. Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments. Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques. Basics The world's first kinesiology department was launched in 1967 at the University of Waterloo, Canada.
Halo effect Edward Thorndike, the first researcher to study the halo effect History Edward Thorndike, known for his contributions to educational psychology, coined the phrase "halo effect" and was the first to support it with empirical research. Dizziness One can induce dizziness by engaging in disorientating activities such as spinning. A stroke is the cause of isolated dizziness in 0.7% of people who present to the emergency room. Differential diagnosis Many conditions are associated with dizziness. However, the most common subcategories can be broken down as follows: 40% peripheral vestibular dysfunction, 10% central nervous system lesion, 15% psychiatric disorder, 25% presyncope/dysequilibrium, and 10% nonspecific dizziness. The medical conditions that often have dizziness as a symptom include: Mechanism
B is for Bottle Spells – Pagan Blog Project 2012 Before I identified as a “pagan” or a “neo-pagan” or an “animist” or as “goddess practitioner” or any of the other categories I’ve applied to myself over the years, I identified as a Witch. Not, I add emphatically, as a Wiccan. I don’t think I ever was a Wiccan. But a witch? Infographic: What does the colour of your snot say about your health? Mucus alone isn't enough to diagnose disease, but it can give doctors useful insights into what's happening inside your body. After all, the stuff we blow out each day is a direct reflection of what our nasal cells are doing. So to provide some insight into what the colour (and texture) of your snot says about your health, the Cleveland Clinic in the US has put together this handy infographic - apologies in advance for the US spelling. You can see a zoomable version here, and hopefully we don't need to tell you that an infographic can't replace the advice of a medical professional, but just in case, consider yourself warned. Source: Cleveland Clinic