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The Extended Mind

The Extended Mind
Andy Clark & David J. Chalmers [*] Department of Philosophy Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130 Department of Philosophy University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 andy@twinearth.wustl.educhalmers@arizona.edu *[[Authors are listed in order of degree of belief in the central thesis.]] [[Published in Analysis 58:10-23, 1998. 1 Introduction Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? 2 Extended Cognition Consider three cases of human problem-solving: (1) A person sits in front of a computer screen which displays images of various two-dimensional geometric shapes and is asked to answer questions concerning the potential fit of such shapes into depicted "sockets". (2) A person sits in front of a similar computer screen, but this time can choose either to physically rotate the image on the screen, by pressing a rotate button, or to mentally rotate the image as before. (3) Sometime in the cyberpunk future, a person sits in front of a similar computer screen. 3 Active Externalism Related:  Intelligenza Collettiva e Agire Collaborativodont be messing with my mindNeuromania

intelligenza distribuita in “Lessico del XXI Secolo” intelligenza distribuita Lessico del XXI Secolo (2012) Out of Our Brains The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. Where is my mind? The question — memorably posed by rock band the Pixies in their 1988 song — is one that, perhaps surprisingly, divides many of us working in the areas of philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Look at the science columns of your daily newspapers and you could be forgiven for thinking that there is no case to answer. We are all familiar with the colorful “brain blob” pictures that show just where activity (indirectly measured by blood oxygenation level) is concentrated as we attempt to solve different kinds of puzzles: blobs here for thinking of nouns, there for thinking of verbs, over there for solving ethical puzzles of a certain class, and so on, ad blobum. (In fact, the brain blob picture has seemingly been raised to the status of visual art form of late with the publication of a book of high-octane brain images. ) But then again, maybe not. Where is my mind?

Neurotheology: This Is Your Brain On Religion Principles of NeurotheologyBy Andrew B. NewbergPaperback, 284 pagesAshgateList price: $29.95 "Neurotheology" is a unique field of scholarship and investigation that seeks to understand the relationship specifically between the brain and theology, and more broadly between the mind and religion. As a topic, neurotheology has garnered substantial attention in the academic and lay communities in recent years. Several books have been written addressing the relationship between the brain and religious experience and numerous scholarly articles have been published on the topic. If neurotheology is to be considered a viable field going forward, it requires a set of clear principles that can be generally agreed upon and supported by both the theological or religious perspective and the scientific one as well. It is important to infuse throughout the principles of neurotheology the notion that neurotheology requires an openness to both the scientific as well as the spiritual perspectives. 1. 2.

Discover Magazine: The latest in science and technology news, blogs and articles - How Google Is Making Us Smarter Our minds are under attack. At least that’s what I keep hearing these days. Thumbing away at our text messages, we are becoming illiterate. I have a hard time taking these Cassandras of the Computer Age seriously. More significantly, the ominous warnings feed on a popular misconception of how the mind works. This concept of the extended mind was first raised in 1998, right around the time Google was born, by two philosophers, Andy Clark, now at the University of Edinburgh, and David Chalmers, now at the Australian National University. The mind appears to be adapted for reaching out and making the world, including our machines, an extension of itself. Clark and Chalmers asked their readers to imagine a woman named Inga. In the view of Clark and Chalmers, Inga’s brain-based memory and Otto’s notebook are fundamentally the same. Eleven years later, this argument continues to trigger fierce debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists.

La mente estesa può fare paura? Storia dell'articolo Chiudi Questo articolo è stato pubblicato il 26 maggio 2013 alle ore 08:28. Lo studio del cervello è necessario per capire la mente. Questo è un dato inconfutabile per chiunque prenda sul serio gli straordinari successi della neuroscienza contemporanea. Ma è anche sufficiente? Permalink Embodied Cognition  Embodied Cognition is a growing research program in cognitive science that emphasizes the formative role the environment plays in the development of cognitive processes. The general theory contends that cognitive processes develop when a tightly coupled system emerges from real-time, goal-directed interactions between organisms and their environment; the nature of these interactions influences the formation and further specifies the nature of the developing cognitive capacities. Since embodied accounts of cognition have been formulated in a variety of different ways in each of the sub-fields comprising cognitive science (that is, developmental psychology, artificial life/robotics, linguistics, and philosophy of mind), a rich interdisciplinary research program continues to emerge. Table of Contents 1. 2. To say that cognition is embodied means that it arises from bodily interactions with the world. a. i. Hannah’s problem was different from Gabriel’s, but it was also the same. ii.

Religion May Cause Brain Atrophy -- Science of the Spirit Faith can open your mind but it can also cause your brain to shrink at a different rate, research suggests. Researchers at Duke University Medical Centre in the US claim to have discovered a correlation between religious practices and changes in the brains of older adults. The study, published in the open-access science journal, Public Library of Science ONE, asked 268 people aged 58 to 84 about their religious group, spiritual practices and life-changing religious experiences. Changes in the volume of their hippocampus, the region of the brain associated with learning and memory, were tracked using MRI scans, over two to eight years. Protestants who did not identify themselves as born-again were found to have less atrophy in the hippocampus region than did born-again Protestants, Catholics or those with no religious affiliation. Although the brain tends to shrink with age, atrophy in the hippocampus has been linked with depression and Alzheimer's disease.

Is Google Making Us Stupid? - Nicholas Carr Illustration by Guy Billout "Dave, stop. Stop, will you? Stop, Dave. Will you stop, Dave?” So the supercomputer HAL pleads with the implacable astronaut Dave Bowman in a famous and weirdly poignant scene toward the end of Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey. I can feel it, too. I think I know what’s going on. For me, as for others, the Net is becoming a universal medium, the conduit for most of the information that flows through my eyes and ears and into my mind. I’m not the only one. Bruce Friedman, who blogs regularly about the use of computers in medicine, also has described how the Internet has altered his mental habits. Anecdotes alone don’t prove much. It is clear that users are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of “reading” are emerging as users “power browse” horizontally through titles, contents pages and abstracts going for quick wins. Reading, explains Wolf, is not an instinctive skill for human beings. Also see:

MediaMente: Levy - De Kerckhove - Intelligenza collettiva e intelligenza connettiva Domanda 1 In che modo Internet ha cambiato il concetto di spazio e di tempo? Risposta (Levy) Come ogni buon filosofo comincerei con il criticare la vostra domanda, perché non penso che Internet cambi il concetto dello spazio e del tempo, ma cambi esattamente lo spazio e il tempo: questa è la questione importante. Un sistema di comunicazione modifica il nostro ambiente di "prossimità", le cose che prima apparivano lontane si avvicinano e rientrano all'interno del nostro spazio dell'esperienza. Domanda 2 La dimensione dello spazio, in questo caso, è dunque una esperienza e non un concetto? Risposta (De Kerckhove) Questa questione è profonda e ci permette di capire quello che è veramente accaduto nel corso della storia. Domanda 3 Tornando ad Internet: l'uso di nuovi motori di ricerca, o degli agenti intelligenti, modificheranno l'apporto dell'essere umano nelle ricerche e dunque il suo rapporto con la tecnologia? Risposta (Levy) Vorrei fare una piccola comparazione.

Neuroscience of free will Neuroscience of free will is the part of neurophilosophy that studies the interconnections between free will and neuroscience. As it has become possible to study the living brain, researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for our sense of agency and for moral responsibility and the role of consciousness in general.[1][2][3] Relevant findings include the pioneering study by Benjamin Libet and its subsequent redesigns; these studies were able to detect activity related to a decision to move, and the activity appears to begin briefly before people become conscious of it.[4] Other studies try to predict activity before overt action occurs.[5] Taken together, these various findings show that at least some actions - like moving a finger - are initiated unconsciously at first, and enter consciousness afterward.[6] A monk meditates. Overview[edit] -Patrick Haggard[6] discussing an in-depth experiment by Itzhak Fried[13] Criticisms[edit]

Neural oscillation Neural oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons. Simulation of neural oscillations at 10 Hz. Overview[edit]

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