Ayn Rand Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews, and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades. The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings. She has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives. Life Early life Rand was born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Russian: Али́са Зиновьевна Розенбаум) on February 2, 1905, to a Russian Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg. She was the eldest of the three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum and his wife, Anna Borisovna (née Kaplan), largely non-observant Jews. The subsequent October Revolution and the rule of the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had previously enjoyed. Along with many other "bourgeois" students, Rand was purged from the university shortly before graduating. Early fiction 
The Great Explosion The Great Explosion is a satirical science fiction novel by Eric Frank Russell, first published in 1962. The story is divided into three sections. The final section is based on Russell's famous 1951 short story "...And Then There Were None." Twenty-three years after the novel was published, it won a Prometheus Hall of Fame Award. Plot The Blieder drive, a faster-than-light drive system, has permitted the population of Earth to colonize the galaxy. The first planet was a penal colony; it is now many independent kleptocratic despotisms preying on each other. See also References Jump up ^ James, Edward (2003). External links
Financial Giants Put New York City Cops On Their Payroll Videos are springing up across the internet showing uniformed members of the New York Police Department in white shirts (as opposed to the typical NYPD blue uniforms) pepper spraying and brutalizing peaceful, nonthreatening protestors attempting to take part in the Occupy Wall Street marches. Corporate media are reporting that these white shirts are police supervisors as opposed to rank and file. Recently discovered documents suggest something else may be at work. If you’re a Wall Street behemoth, there are endless opportunities to privatize profits and socialize losses beyond collecting trillions of dollars in bailouts from taxpayers. One of the ingenious methods that has remained below the public’s radar was started by the Rudy Giuliani administration in New York City in 1998. The corporations pay an average of $37 an hour (no medical, no pension benefit, no overtime pay) for a member of the NYPD, with gun, handcuffs and the ability to arrest.
News from Nowhere The book explores a number of aspects of this society, including its organisation and the relationships which it engenders between people. Morris cleverly fuses Marxism and the romance tradition when he presents himself as an enchanted figure in a time and place different from Victorian England. As Morris, the romance character, quests for love and fellowship—and through them for a reborn self—he encounters romance archetypes in Marxist guises. In the novel, Morris tackles one of the most common criticisms of socialism; the supposed lack of incentive to work in a communistic society. Looking Backward Morris reviewed the novel Looking Backward in the Commonweal on 21 June 1889. Morris’s basic antipathy with Bellamy arose chiefly from his disagreement with Bellamy’s social values and aesthetic convictions. More specifically, Morris criticised the limited nature Bellamy's idea of life. Gender in Nowhere Marriage Morris offers a Marxian view of marriage and divorce.
Plutocracy Plutocracy (from Greek πλοῦτος, ploutos, meaning "wealth", and κράτος, kratos, meaning "power, dominion, rule") or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society or a system ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens. The first known use of the term was in 1652. Unlike systems such as democracy, capitalism, socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy. The concept of plutocracy may be advocated by the wealthy classes of a society in an indirect or surreptitious fashion, though the term itself is almost always used in a pejorative sense. Usage Examples Examples of plutocracies include the Roman Empire, some city-states in Ancient Greece, the civilization of Carthage, the Italian city-states/merchant republics of Venice, Florence, Genoa, and pre-World War II Empire of Japan (the zaibatsu). Modern politics United States Post World War II Russia As a propaganda term
Looking Backward Looking Backward: 2000-1887 is a utopian science fiction novel by Edward Bellamy, a lawyer and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts; it was first published in 1888. According to Erich Fromm, Looking Backward is "one of the most remarkable books ever published in America". Synopsis The book tells the story of Julian West, a young American who, towards the end of the 19th century, falls into a deep, hypnosis-induced sleep and wakes up one hundred and thirteen years later. He finds himself in the same location (Boston, Massachusetts), but in a totally changed world: It is the year 2000 and, while he was sleeping, the United States has been transformed into a socialist utopia. The remainder of the book outlines Bellamy's thoughts about improving the future. Although Bellamy's novel did not discuss technology or the economy in detail, commentators frequently compare Looking Backward with actual economic and technological developments. Key excerpts Precursors
Oligarchy Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning "few", and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning "to rule or to command") is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have been tyrannical (relying on public obedience and/or oppression to exist) or relatively benign. History Athenian techniques to prevent the rise of oligarchy Manifestations Forms of government and other political structures associated with oligarchy can include aristocracy, meritocracy, military junta, plutocracy, stratocracy, technocracy, theocracy and timocracy. Corporate oligarchy
STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is a 1962 book about the history of science by Thomas S. Kuhn. Its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge and triggered an ongoing worldwide assessment and reaction in—and beyond—those scholarly communities. Kuhn challenged the then prevailing view of progress in "normal science." Normal scientific progress was viewed as "development-by-accumulation" of accepted facts and theories. For example, Kuhn's analysis of the Copernican Revolution emphasized that, in its beginning, it did not offer more accurate predictions of celestial events, such as planetary positions, than the Ptolemaic system, but instead appealed to some practitioners based on a promise of better, simpler, solutions that might be developed at some point in the future. History Synopsis Basic approach Historical examples Kuhn explains his ideas using examples taken from the history of science.
This bastardised libertarianism makes 'freedom' an instrument of oppression | George Monbiot Illustration by Daniel Pudles Freedom: who could object? Yet this word is now used to justify a thousand forms of exploitation. Throughout the rightwing press and blogosphere, among thinktanks and governments, the word excuses every assault on the lives of the poor, every form of inequality and intrusion to which the 1% subject us. How did libertarianism, once a noble impulse, become synonymous with injustice? In the name of freedom – freedom from regulation – the banks were permitted to wreck the economy. Rightwing libertarianism recognises few legitimate constraints on the power to act, regardless of the impact on the lives of others. So why have we been been so slow to challenge this concept of liberty? Put briefly and crudely, negative freedom is the freedom to be or to act without interference from other people. Rightwing libertarians claim that greens and social justice campaigners are closet communists trying to resurrect Soviet conceptions of positive freedom.
The Kingdom of God Is Within You The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God Is Within You. The Kingdom of God Is Within You (Russian: Царство Божие внутри вас [Tsarstvo Bozhiye vnutri vas]) is the non-fiction magnum opus of Leo Tolstoy. The book was first published in Germany in 1894 after being banned in his home country of Russia. It is the culmination of thirty years of Tolstoy's Christian anarchist thinking, and lays out a new organization for society based on a literal Christian interpretation. Reasoning The 1st edition of The Kingdom of God Is Within You, 1894. The title of the book is taken from Luke 17:21. “How can you kill people, when it is written in God’s commandment: ‘Thou shalt not murder’?” Tolstoy took the viewpoint that all governments who waged war are an affront to Christian principles. Tolstoy advocated non-violence as a solution to nationalist woes and as a means for seeing the hypocrisy of the church. Tolstoy's relationship with Mohandas Gandhi Mohandas K. See also
Nederland buiten kennis Nederland kan alleen meer verdienen door meer uit te vinden, maar er is gebrek aan de belangrijkste grondstof: kennis. De technisch hoogopgeleide mensen die voor deze innovaties nodig zijn, studeren niet in Nederland. Al jarenlang spreekt de Nederlandse politiek de ambitie uit bij de beste kenniseconomieën ter wereld te behoren. Een ambitie die tot nu toe vooral weerslag krijgt in stapels rapporten en abstracte ranglijsten. Om het begrip kenniseconomie concreet te maken gaat Tegenlicht samen met Jan Kamminga, voorman van de Nederlandse high-tech industrie, te rade bij enkele van Nederlands meest innovatieve bedrijven, waaronder de succesvolle chipmachinefabrikant ASML. Kamminga en ondernemers houden een hartstochtelijk pleidooi om nu fors te investeren in het technische/exacte onderwijs in Nederland: dat is de basis van onze huidige en toekomstige welvaart.
A LIST OF BOOKS