Error The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. Human behavior One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows: An 'error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. Oral and written language An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. The 'Judas' Bible in St Mary's Church, Totnes, Devon. Gaffe  A gaffe is a verbal mistake, usually made in a social environment. Law
Democratic Party (United States) Since the 1930s, the party has promoted a social liberal platform. Until the late 20th century the party had a powerful conservative and populist wing based in the rural South, which over time has greatly diminished. Today its Congressional caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists. History The Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to the Federalist party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. 1860s 1900s Agrarian Democrats demanding Free Silver overthrew the Bourbon Democrats in 1896 and nominated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency (a nomination repeated by Democrats in 1900 and 1908). Modern era Electoral history Name and symbols "A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast. The donkey party logo is still a well-known symbol for the Democratic Party, despite not being the official logo of the party.
Medicare (United States) A sample Medicare card. There are separate lines for basic Part A and Part B's supplementary medical coverage, each with its own date. There are no lines for Part C or D, which are additional supplemental policies for which a separate card is issued. In the United States, Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1966, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older who have worked and paid into the system, and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease (Medicare.gov, 2012) and persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In 2010, Medicare provided health insurance to 48 million Americans—40 million people age 65 and older and eight million younger people with disabilities. Medicare has been in operation for over forty years and, during that time, has undergone several changes. Medicare has several sources of financing. or Some beneficiaries are dual-eligible. U.S.
Volcano A 2007 eruptive column at Mount Etna producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador, a close up aerial view of the nested summit calderas and craters, along with the crater lake as seen from a United States Air Force C-130 Hercules flying above El Salvador. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Etymology Plate tectonics Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (OSR – Oceanic Spreading Ridges) and recent sub aerial volcanoes. Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. "Hotspots" Volcanic features Lava domes
Libertarian Party (United States) Tonie Nathan, running as the Libertarian Party's vice-presidential candidate in the 1972 Presidential Election with John Hospers as the presidential candidate, was the first female candidate in the United States to win an electoral vote. The 2012 election Libertarian Party presidential candidate, former New Mexico governor Gary Johnson, was chosen on May 4, 2012 at the 2012 Libertarian National Convention in Summerlin, Nevada. "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch" In 1972, "Libertarian Party" was chosen as the party's name, selected over "New Liberty Party." The first official slogan of the Libertarian Party was "There ain't no such thing as a free lunch" (abbreviated "TANSTAAFL"), a phrase popularized by Robert A Heinlein in his 1966 novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, sometimes dubbed "a manifesto for a libertarian revolution". The current slogan of the party is "The Party of Principle". The porcupine is also a mascot of the Libertarian Party.
Social Security Act of 1965 History Many politicians were involved in drafting the final bill that was introduced to the United States Congress in March 1965. On July 30, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the bill into law. The concept of national health insurance began in the early 20th century in the United States and then came to prominence during the Truman administration. Previous administrations In 1935, when President Franklin D. In 1960, the Kerr-Mills Act created the Medical Assistance for the Aged (MAA) program which gave states the power to decide which patients needed financial assistance. Johnson administration With the election of Lyndon B. The groups previously opposed to the legislation switched their focus from opposing the bill to creating new versions of it. When deliberations began in 1965, both AMA members and their suggestions were rejected. On July 30, 1965, President Johnson signed the bill, making it Public Law 89-97. References
Christmas While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown. His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East, although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to January in the modern-day Gregorian calendar. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness". Etymology Other names History Dies Natalis Solis Invicti
Scouting Leaders welcome a boy into Scouting, March 2010, Mexico City, Mexico. The two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting world wide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. History Origins Three years later, in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafeking by a much larger Boer army (the Siege of Mafeking). The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. Growth Influences
United States Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists who had opposed Constitutional ratification, these amendments guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserve some powers to the states and the public. While originally the amendments applied only to the federal government, most of their provisions have since been extended to the states by way of the Fourteenth Amendment, a process known as incorporation. The amendments were introduced by James Madison to the 1st United States Congress as a series of legislative articles. The Bill of Rights had little judicial impact for the first 150 years of its existence, but was the basis for many Supreme Court decisions of the 20th and 21st centuries. Background The Philadelphia Convention The Anti-Federalists The pseudonymous Anti-Federalist "Brutus"[a] wrote, Proposal by Congress
Courage Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal or discouragement. In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. Theories of courage Western antiquity and the Middle Ages Ancient Greece An early Greek philosopher, Plato (c. 428 BCE – c. 348 BCE), set the groundwork for how courage would be viewed to future philosophers. While many definitions are given in Plato’s Laches, all are refuted, giving a reader a sense of Plato’s argument style. Ancient Rome Medieval philosophy Christianity
Youth Resources and Information Bill of rights Bills of rights may be entrenched or unentrenched. An entrenched bill of rights cannot be modified or repealed by a country's legislature through normal procedure, instead requiring a supermajority or referendum; often it is part of a country's constitution and therefore subject to special procedures applicable to constitutional amendments. A not entrenched bill of rights is a normal statute law and as such can be modified or repealed by the legislature at will. In practice, not every jurisdiction enforces the protection of the rights articulated in its bill of rights. Exceptions in Western democracies Australia is the only Western democratic country with neither a constitutional nor federal legislative bill of rights  to protect its citizens, although there is ongoing debate in many of Australia's states. List of bills of rights General Specifically targeted documents See also References External links