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Embodied Cognition 

Embodied Cognition 
Embodied Cognition is a growing research program in cognitive science that emphasizes the formative role the environment plays in the development of cognitive processes. The general theory contends that cognitive processes develop when a tightly coupled system emerges from real-time, goal-directed interactions between organisms and their environment; the nature of these interactions influences the formation and further specifies the nature of the developing cognitive capacities. Since embodied accounts of cognition have been formulated in a variety of different ways in each of the sub-fields comprising cognitive science (that is, developmental psychology, artificial life/robotics, linguistics, and philosophy of mind), a rich interdisciplinary research program continues to emerge. Table of Contents 1. 2. To say that cognition is embodied means that it arises from bodily interactions with the world. a. i. Hannah’s problem was different from Gabriel’s, but it was also the same. ii.

Brain Fitness and Cognitive Health Authority: Market Research and Advisory Services Cognitive bias Systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. The study of cognitive biases has practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management.[9][10] Overview[edit] The notion of cognitive biases was introduced by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1972[11] and grew out of their experience of people's innumeracy, or inability to reason intuitively with the greater orders of magnitude. Tversky, Kahneman, and colleagues demonstrated several replicable ways in which human judgments and decisions differ from rational choice theory. The "Linda Problem" illustrates the representativeness heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983[13]). Definitions[edit] Types[edit] Biases can be distinguished on a number of dimensions.

Cognition Cognition is a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.[4] These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, systemics, and computer science.[5][page needed] Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence. It encompasses the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts), and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines, and artificial intelligences).[3] Etymology[edit] Origins[edit] Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) heavily emphasized the notion of what he called introspection; examining the inner feelings of an individual. Psychology[edit] Social process[edit] Serial position

Neuroscience, free will and determinism: 'I'm just a machine' What does this mean in terms of free will? "We don't have free will, in the spiritual sense. What you're seeing is the last output stage of a machine. The conclusions are shocking: if we are part of the universe, and obey its laws, it's hard to see where free will comes into it. "If you see a light go green, it may mean press the accelerator; but there are lots of situations where it doesn't mean that: if the car in front hasn't moved, for example. Slowly, however, we are learning more about the details of that complexity. "What happens if someone commits a crime, and it turns out that there's a lesion in that brain area? This runs shockingly contrary to the sense of freedom that we feel in terms of controlling our actions, on which we base our whole sense of self and system of morality. "It's a rule that we need to have as social animals. Maybe, I suggest, we've over-defined free will. "Yes, interacting intelligently with your environment might be enough. Prof Haggard is dismissive.

List of cognitive biases Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm and/or rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology, sociology and behavioral economics.[1] Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research,[2][3] there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them.[4] Several theoretical causes are known for some cognitive biases, which provides a classification of biases by their common generative mechanism (such as noisy information-processing[5]). Explanations include information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. Belief, decision-making and behavioral[edit] Anchoring bias[edit] Apophenia[edit]

The Unconscious Brain Can Do Math, Read People can process short sentences and solve equations before they're aware of the words and numbers in front of their eyes, finds new research that suggests we might not actually need full consciousness to perform rule-based tasks like reading and arithmetic. In a series of experiments at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, more than 300 student participants were unconsciously exposed to words and equations through a research technique known as Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS). With this method, a static image appears in front of one eye while rapidly changing pictures flash in front of the other eye. In the first part of the study, one eye was presented with a static phrase or sentence, which was "masked" by changing colorful shapes flashing in front of the other eye. The researchers say these results suggest that the sentences were fully read and comprehended subconsciously, and certain phrases broke out of suppression faster because they were more surprising.

Enfants et écrans : psychologie et cognition L’Académie des sciences vient de publier un rapport (.pdf) sur la relation des enfants aux écrans (disponible également sous la forme de livre aux éditions Le Pommier), un rapport qui tord le cou à nombre d’idées reçues sur le sujet et fait le point sur les connaissances scientifiques, éducatives et neurobiologiques. Comme le précisait Jean-François Bach, secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie des Sciences lors de la présentation publique du rapport, l’Académie a souhaité éclaircir les bases scientifiques de nos usages excessifs des écrans (voir les vidéos des présentations). Un rapport qui a voulu insister pas seulement sur les effets délétères des écrans – des effets qui existent, qui influent par exemple sur le temps de sommeil, l’attention, mais de manière plus rare qu’on a tendance à le penser – mais surtout sur les effets positifs de notre exposition aux écrans et notamment de l’exposition des plus jeunes aux écrans. A l’inverse, chaque culture apporte également son lot d’avantages.

Neuroscience Sheds New Light on Creativity - Rewiring the Creative Mind Close your eyes and visualize the sun setting over a beach. How detailed was your image? Did you envision a bland orb sinking below calm waters, or did you call up an image filled with activity -- palm trees swaying gently, waves lapping at your feet, perhaps a loved one holding your hand? Now imagine you're standing on the surface of Pluto. scene. What you conjured illuminates how our brains work, why it can be so hard to come up with new ideas -- and how you can rewire your mind to open up the holy grail of creativity. Creativity and imagination begin with perception. Perception and imagination are linked because the brain uses the same neural circuits for both functions. Entire books have been written about learning, but the important elements for creative thinkers can be boiled down to this: Experience modifies the connections between neurons so that they become more efficient at processing information. The brain is fundamentally a lazy piece of meat.

You can increase your intelligence: 5 ways to maximize your cognitive potential | Guest Blog The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. "One should not pursue goals that are easily achieved. One must develop an instinct for what one can just barely achieve through one’s greatest efforts." While Einstein was not a neuroscientist, he sure knew what he was talking about in regards to the human capacity to achieve. Not so many years ago, I was told by a professor of mine that you didn’t have much control over your intelligence. Well, I disagreed. You see, before that point in my studies, I had begun working as a Behavior Therapist, training young children on the autism spectrum. One of my first clients was a little boy w/ PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Delays-Not Otherwise Specified), a mild form of autism. He wasn’t the only child I saw make vast improvements in the years I’ve been a therapist, either. Although the data from those early studies showed dismal results, I wasn’t discouraged. What is "Intelligence"? 1. 2. 3. 4.