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Common sense

Common sense
Common sense is a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge things, which is shared by ("common to") nearly all people, and can be reasonably expected of nearly all people without any need for debate.[1] The everyday understanding of what common sense is derives from philosophical discussion, involving several European languages. Related terms in other languages include Latin sensus communis, Greek κοινὴ αἲσθησις (koinē aísthēsis), and French bon sens, but these are not straightforward translations in all contexts. Similarly in English, there are different shades of meaning, implying more or less education and wisdom: "good sense" is sometimes seen as equivalent to "common sense", and sometimes not.[2] "Common sense" has at least two specifically philosophical meanings. Aristotle, who is the first person known to have discussed "common sense". Aristotelian common sense[edit] The origin of the term is in the works of Aristotle. Roman common sense[edit] Cartesian common sense[edit] Related:  (0.1) Core & Keys concept....Tropes

Intuition (knowledge) Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason.[1] The word intuition comes from Latin verb intueri which is usually translated as to look inside or to contemplate.[2] Intuition is thus often conceived as a kind of inner perception, sometimes regarded as real lucidity or understanding. Cases of intuition are of a great diversity, however processes by which they happen typically remain mostly unknown to the thinker, as opposed to our view of rational thinking. Intuition provides views, understandings, judgements, or beliefs that we cannot in every case empirically verify or rationally justify. In Carl Jung's theory of the ego, described in 1921 in Psychological Types, intuition was an "irrational function", opposed most directly by sensation, and opposed less strongly by the "rational functions" of thinking and feeling. In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and decision making.

Axiom An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'[1][2] The term has subtle differences in definition when used in the context of different fields of study. As used in mathematics, the term axiom is used in two related but distinguishable senses: "logical axioms" and "non-logical axioms". In both senses, an axiom is any mathematical statement that serves as a starting point from which other statements are logically derived. Etymology[edit] The word axiom comes from the Greek word ἀξίωμα (axíōma), a verbal noun from the verb ἀξιόειν (axioein), meaning "to deem worthy", but also "to require", which in turn comes from ἄξιος (áxios), meaning "being in balance", and hence "having (the same) value (as)", "worthy", "proper". Historical development[edit] Early Greeks[edit] Postulates

Idola fori Idola fori (singular Idolum fori), sometimes translated as "Idols of the Market Place" or "Idols of the Forum", are a category of logical fallacy which results from the imperfect correspondences between the word definitions in human languages, and the real things in nature which these words represent. The term was coined in Latin by Sir Francis Bacon and used in his Novum Organum, one of the earliest treatises arguing the case for the logic and method of modern science. The term is one of four such "idols" which represent "idols and false notions which are now in possession of the human understanding, and have taken deep root therein". Besides idola fori, there are also idola tribus (Idols of the Tribe, coming from human nature itself), idola specus, (Idols of the cave, coming from the tendencies of particular individuals or groups of people) and idola theatri (Idols of the theatre, caused by the influence of philosophers and systems of thought). Bacon's description[edit]

Intuition Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Définition[modifier | modifier le code] L'intuition est un mode de connaissance, de pensée ou jugement, perçu comme immédiat (au sens de direct) ; c'est une faculté de l'esprit. Le terme intuition désigne également une pensée résultant de l'action de cette faculté. L'intuition semble être immédiate du fait qu'elle paraît opérer sans user de la raison ni de la pensée verbale, et est généralement perçue comme inconsciente : seule sa conclusion est alors disponible à l'attention consciente. De plus, l'intuition prend souvent la forme d'un sentiment d'évidence quant à la vérité ou la fausseté d'une proposition, dont l’assurance est d’autant plus remarquable qu’il est souvent difficile d’en justifier la pertinence. Néanmoins, on peut compléter cette approche occidentale de l’intuition par la conception qu’en a l’Extrême-Orient. Intuition et philosophie[modifier | modifier le code] Exemples : Intuition et psychologie[modifier | modifier le code]

Apeiron (cosmology) Apeiron (ἄπειρον) is a Greek word meaning "unlimited," "infinite", or "indefinite"[1] from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit",[2] the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary".[3] His ideas were influenced by the Greek mythical tradition and by his teacher Thales (7th-6th century BC). Searching for some universal principle, Anaximander retained the traditional religious assumption that there was a cosmic order and tried to explain it rationally, using the old mythical language which ascribed divine control on various spheres of reality. This language was more suitable for a society which could see gods everywhere; therefore the first glimmerings of laws of nature were themselves derived from divine laws.[8] The Greeks believed that the universal principles could also be applied to human societies. The word nomos (law) may originally have meant natural law and used later to mean man-made law.[9] Scholars in other fields, e.g.

Sens commun Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. À l'origine, le « sensus communis »[modifier | modifier le code] La notion de « sens commun » descend de son ancêtre latin « Sensus communis », présent dans l'Antiquité mais avec une signification différente de celle que nous lui connaissons aujourd'hui. Aristote[1] a d'abord formulé dans le traité de sensu et sensibilibus une réflexion sur la perception (aisthesis), dans le sens de sensibilités communes (koinè aisthesis). Dans la métaphysique de la psychologie, le sens communest une faculté que l'on est obligé de postuler pour rendre compte de la synthèse par notre conscience des sensations issues de nos différents sens. Cette ligne de pensée sera au centre des débats philosophiques relatifs à la théorie de la connaissance jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Descartes, héritier de la double tradition aristotélicienne et scolastique, contribuera à disqualifier ce concept (koinè aisthesis) en logeant le sens commun dans la glande pinéale.

Insight Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. En psychologie, l’insight[1] est la découverte soudaine de la solution à un problème sans passer par une série d'essais-erreurs progressifs. Ce phénomène a été mis en évidence chez le chimpanzé par Wolfgang Köhler dans une série d'expériences menées à Tenerife de 1913 à 1920. Le phénomène d’insight[modifier | modifier le code] Köhler utilise le terme anglais insight (qui traduit le terme allemand Einsicht - compréhension, discernement) pour nommer le temps fort d’une résolution, compris comme passage d'une configuration perceptive à une seconde configuration, plus satisfaisante car porteuse en elle-même des réorientations, des regroupements, des suggestions d'actions susceptibles de remédier aux tensions inhérentes à la configuration antécédente. Köhler donne par exemple cette description d'un exercice réalisé par le singe Sultan : Sultan tries to reach the fruit with the smaller of the two sticks. Traduction : Portail de la psychologie

Esotericism Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs,[1] that is, ideas preserved or understood by a small group of those specially initiated, or of rare or unusual interest.[2] The term derives from the Greek, either from the comparative ἐσώτερος (esôteros), "inner", or from its derived adjective ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos), "pertaining to the innermost".[3] The term can also refer to the academic study of esoteric religious movements and philosophies, or to the study of those religious movements and philosophies whose proponents distinguish their beliefs, practices, and experiences from mainstream exoteric and more dogmatic institutionalized traditions.[4] Although esotericism refers to an exploration of the hidden meanings and symbolism in various philosophical, historical, and religious texts, the texts themselves are often central to mainstream religions. For example, the Bible and the Torah are considered esoteric material.[7] Etymology[edit] Definition[edit]

Baconian method The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon. The method was put forward in Bacon's book Novum Organum (1620), or 'New Method', and was supposed to replace the methods put forward in Aristotle's Organon. This method was influential upon the development of the scientific method in modern science; but also more generally in the early modern rejection of medieval Aristotelianism. With the upcoming Romanticism in the 19th century, it was replaced by Humboldtian science. [1][2][3] Description in the Novum Organum[edit] Bacon's view of induction[edit] Bacon's method is an example of the application of inductive reasoning. "Our only hope, then is in genuine Induction... Approach to causality[edit] The method consists of procedures for isolating and further investigating the form nature, or cause, of a phenomenon, including the method of agreement, method of difference, and method of concomitant variation.[4] Refinements[edit] Natural history[edit] Influence[edit]

Névrose Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le terme névrose, en psychiatrie et en psychopathologie psychanalytique, désigne des troubles psychiques sans lésion organique démontrable. Le sujet reste conscient de sa souffrance psychique et vit dans la réalité[1]. Les névroses de l'adulte doivent être distinguées de celles de l'enfant (dominées par l'angoisse) et la névrose infantile qui est aussi un concept métapsychologique. Le mot fut inventé par le médecin écossais William Cullen en 1769[2]. Il est dérivé du grec « neuron » (« nerf-neuro ») avec le suffixe « ose » de « ôsis » servant aux mots désignant des maladies non inflammatoires. Classification[modifier | modifier le code] Selon Freud, les troubles psychologiques tels que l'hystérie, la névrose obsessionnelle, la névrose phobique, la névrose d'angoisse, la névrose actuelle, la neurasthénie et la psychonévrose (névrose de transfert et névrose narcissique) peuvent être classés dans la névrose. Genèse[modifier | modifier le code]

Nous This article is about a philosophical term. For the philosophy journal, see Noûs. In philosophy, common English translations include "understanding" and "mind"; or sometimes "thought" or "reason" (in the sense of that which reasons, not the activity of reasoning).[2][3] It is also often described as something equivalent to perception except that it works within the mind ("the mind's eye").[4] It has been suggested that the basic meaning is something like "awareness".[5] In colloquial British English, nous also denotes "good sense", which is close to one everyday meaning it had in Ancient Greece. This diagram shows the medieval understanding of spheres of the cosmos, derived from Aristotle, and as per the standard explanation by Ptolemy. In Aristotle's influential works, the term was carefully distinguished from sense perception, imagination and reason, although these terms are closely inter-related. Pre-Socratic usage[edit] The first use of the word nous in the Iliad. Xenophon[edit]

Idola tribus Idola tribus (singular Idolum tribus) is a category of logical fallacy, normally translated as "Idols of the Tribe", which refers to a tendency of human nature, to prefer certain types of incorrect conclusions. It is a Latin term, coined by Sir Francis Bacon and used in his Novum Organum, one of the earliest treatises arguing the case for the methodical approach of modern science. The term is one of four such "idols" which represent "idols and false notions which are now in possession of the human understanding, and have taken deep root therein, not only so beset men's minds that truth can hardly find entrance, but even after entrance is obtained, they will again in the very instauration of the sciences meet and trouble us, unless men being forewarned of the danger fortify themselves as far as may be against their assaults".[1] The Idols of the Tribe have their foundation in human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of men. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

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