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Common sense

Common sense
Common sense is a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge things, which is shared by ("common to") nearly all people, and can be reasonably expected of nearly all people without any need for debate.[1] The everyday understanding of what common sense is derives from philosophical discussion, involving several European languages. Related terms in other languages include Latin sensus communis, Greek κοινὴ αἲσθησις (koinē aísthēsis), and French bon sens, but these are not straightforward translations in all contexts. Similarly in English, there are different shades of meaning, implying more or less education and wisdom: "good sense" is sometimes seen as equivalent to "common sense", and sometimes not.[2] "Common sense" has at least two specifically philosophical meanings. Aristotle, who is the first person known to have discussed "common sense". Aristotelian common sense[edit] The origin of the term is in the works of Aristotle. Roman common sense[edit] Cartesian common sense[edit] Related:  (0.1) Core & Keys concept....Tropes

Intuition (knowledge) Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason.[1] The word intuition comes from Latin verb intueri which is usually translated as to look inside or to contemplate.[2] Intuition is thus often conceived as a kind of inner perception, sometimes regarded as real lucidity or understanding. Cases of intuition are of a great diversity, however processes by which they happen typically remain mostly unknown to the thinker, as opposed to our view of rational thinking. Intuition provides views, understandings, judgements, or beliefs that we cannot in every case empirically verify or rationally justify. In Carl Jung's theory of the ego, described in 1921 in Psychological Types, intuition was an "irrational function", opposed most directly by sensation, and opposed less strongly by the "rational functions" of thinking and feeling. In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and decision making.

Idola fori Idola fori (singular Idolum fori), sometimes translated as "Idols of the Market Place" or "Idols of the Forum", are a category of logical fallacy which results from the imperfect correspondences between the word definitions in human languages, and the real things in nature which these words represent. The term was coined in Latin by Sir Francis Bacon and used in his Novum Organum, one of the earliest treatises arguing the case for the logic and method of modern science. The term is one of four such "idols" which represent "idols and false notions which are now in possession of the human understanding, and have taken deep root therein". Besides idola fori, there are also idola tribus (Idols of the Tribe, coming from human nature itself), idola specus, (Idols of the cave, coming from the tendencies of particular individuals or groups of people) and idola theatri (Idols of the theatre, caused by the influence of philosophers and systems of thought). Bacon's description[edit]

Intuition Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Définition[modifier | modifier le code] L'intuition est un mode de connaissance, de pensée ou jugement, perçu comme immédiat (au sens de direct) ; c'est une faculté de l'esprit. Le terme intuition désigne également une pensée résultant de l'action de cette faculté. L'intuition semble être immédiate du fait qu'elle paraît opérer sans user de la raison ni de la pensée verbale, et est généralement perçue comme inconsciente : seule sa conclusion est alors disponible à l'attention consciente. De plus, l'intuition prend souvent la forme d'un sentiment d'évidence quant à la vérité ou la fausseté d'une proposition, dont l’assurance est d’autant plus remarquable qu’il est souvent difficile d’en justifier la pertinence. Néanmoins, on peut compléter cette approche occidentale de l’intuition par la conception qu’en a l’Extrême-Orient. Intuition et philosophie[modifier | modifier le code] Exemples : Intuition et psychologie[modifier | modifier le code]

Sens commun Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. À l'origine, le « sensus communis »[modifier | modifier le code] La notion de « sens commun » descend de son ancêtre latin « Sensus communis », présent dans l'Antiquité mais avec une signification différente de celle que nous lui connaissons aujourd'hui. Aristote[1] a d'abord formulé dans le traité de sensu et sensibilibus une réflexion sur la perception (aisthesis), dans le sens de sensibilités communes (koinè aisthesis). Dans la métaphysique de la psychologie, le sens communest une faculté que l'on est obligé de postuler pour rendre compte de la synthèse par notre conscience des sensations issues de nos différents sens. Cette ligne de pensée sera au centre des débats philosophiques relatifs à la théorie de la connaissance jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Descartes, héritier de la double tradition aristotélicienne et scolastique, contribuera à disqualifier ce concept (koinè aisthesis) en logeant le sens commun dans la glande pinéale.

Insight Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. En psychologie, l’insight[1] est la découverte soudaine de la solution à un problème sans passer par une série d'essais-erreurs progressifs. Ce phénomène a été mis en évidence chez le chimpanzé par Wolfgang Köhler dans une série d'expériences menées à Tenerife de 1913 à 1920. Le phénomène d’insight[modifier | modifier le code] Köhler utilise le terme anglais insight (qui traduit le terme allemand Einsicht - compréhension, discernement) pour nommer le temps fort d’une résolution, compris comme passage d'une configuration perceptive à une seconde configuration, plus satisfaisante car porteuse en elle-même des réorientations, des regroupements, des suggestions d'actions susceptibles de remédier aux tensions inhérentes à la configuration antécédente. Köhler donne par exemple cette description d'un exercice réalisé par le singe Sultan : Sultan tries to reach the fruit with the smaller of the two sticks. Traduction : Portail de la psychologie

Baconian method The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon. The method was put forward in Bacon's book Novum Organum (1620), or 'New Method', and was supposed to replace the methods put forward in Aristotle's Organon. This method was influential upon the development of the scientific method in modern science; but also more generally in the early modern rejection of medieval Aristotelianism. With the upcoming Romanticism in the 19th century, it was replaced by Humboldtian science. [1][2][3] Description in the Novum Organum[edit] Bacon's view of induction[edit] Bacon's method is an example of the application of inductive reasoning. "Our only hope, then is in genuine Induction... Approach to causality[edit] The method consists of procedures for isolating and further investigating the form nature, or cause, of a phenomenon, including the method of agreement, method of difference, and method of concomitant variation.[4] Refinements[edit] Natural history[edit] Influence[edit]

Névrose Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le terme névrose, en psychiatrie et en psychopathologie psychanalytique, désigne des troubles psychiques sans lésion organique démontrable. Le sujet reste conscient de sa souffrance psychique et vit dans la réalité[1]. Les névroses de l'adulte doivent être distinguées de celles de l'enfant (dominées par l'angoisse) et la névrose infantile qui est aussi un concept métapsychologique. Le mot fut inventé par le médecin écossais William Cullen en 1769[2]. Il est dérivé du grec « neuron » (« nerf-neuro ») avec le suffixe « ose » de « ôsis » servant aux mots désignant des maladies non inflammatoires. Classification[modifier | modifier le code] Selon Freud, les troubles psychologiques tels que l'hystérie, la névrose obsessionnelle, la névrose phobique, la névrose d'angoisse, la névrose actuelle, la neurasthénie et la psychonévrose (névrose de transfert et névrose narcissique) peuvent être classés dans la névrose. Genèse[modifier | modifier le code]

Idola tribus Idola tribus (singular Idolum tribus) is a category of logical fallacy, normally translated as "Idols of the Tribe", which refers to a tendency of human nature, to prefer certain types of incorrect conclusions. It is a Latin term, coined by Sir Francis Bacon and used in his Novum Organum, one of the earliest treatises arguing the case for the methodical approach of modern science. The term is one of four such "idols" which represent "idols and false notions which are now in possession of the human understanding, and have taken deep root therein, not only so beset men's minds that truth can hardly find entrance, but even after entrance is obtained, they will again in the very instauration of the sciences meet and trouble us, unless men being forewarned of the danger fortify themselves as far as may be against their assaults".[1] The Idols of the Tribe have their foundation in human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of men. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Sophrosyne Sophrosyne (Greek: σωφροσύνη) is a Greek philosophical term etymologically meaning healthy-mindedness and from there self-control or moderation guided by knowledge and balance. Roman poet Juvenal later interpreted sophrosyne as "mens sana in corpore sano" ("a healthy mind in a healthy body"). In ancient Greek philosophy[edit] Sophrosyne was a Greek goddess. Many Ancient Greeks upheld the ideal of sophrosyne, which is often translated by such terms as prudence, self-control, moderation, and temperance; but ultimately its complex meaning, so important to the ancients, is very difficult to convey in English. Socrates, a Greek philosopher, believed that the quest for self-knowledge was to be honored more than the attainment of wealth or material goods and that the most valuable of one’s possessions were virtues. The term suggests that lifelong happiness may be obtained when one's mental needs are satisfied, and it resembles the idea of enlightenment through harmonious living. See also[edit]

Doxa Doxa (from ancient Greek δόξα from δοκεῖν dokein, "to expect", "to seem"[1]) is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion. Used by the Greek rhetoricians as a tool for the formation of argument by using common opinions, the doxa was often manipulated by sophists to persuade the people, leading to Plato's condemnation of Athenian democracy. The word doxa picked up a new meaning between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC when the Septuagint translated the Hebrew word for "glory" (כבוד, kavod) as doxa. This translation of the Hebrew Scriptures was used by the early church and is quoted frequently by the New Testament authors. The effects of this new meaning of doxa as "glory" is made evident by the ubiquitous use of the word throughout the New Testament and in the worship services of the Greek Orthodox Church, where the glorification of God in true worship is also seen as true belief. Doxa, a philosopheme[edit] Use in sociology and anthropology[edit] Role of doxa in democracy[edit]

Psychose Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La psychose (du mot grec ψυχή, psyche, « esprit, âme », et -ωσις, -osis, « anomalie ») est un terme générique psychiatrique désignant un trouble, ou une condition anormale, de l'esprit évoquant le plus souvent une « perte de contact avec la réalité. » Les individus souffrant de psychose sont nommés des « psychotiques ». La psychose qualifie les formes sévères d'un trouble psychiatrique durant lesquelles peuvent survenir délires, hallucinations, violences irrépressibles ou encore une perception distordue de la réalité.[2]. Le terme de « psychose » a une utilisation très variée et peut désigner toute expérience délirante ou aberrante exprimée dans les mécanismes complexes et catatoniques de la schizophrénie et du trouble bipolaire de type I[3],[4]. En outre, une grande variété de maladies liées au système nerveux central, causées par des substances étrangères ou des problèmes physiologiques, peuvent produire des symptômes de psychose.

Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project View HTML Download PDF Rent from DeepDyve Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Philosophy and Rhetoric 37.1 (2004) 1-20 Ekaterina V. Communication Department Boston College Aristotle's crucial role in institutionalizing the art of rhetoric in the fourth century BCE is beyond dispute, but the significance of Aristotle's rhetorical project remains a point of lively controversy among philosophers and rhetoricians alike. Since G. Aristotle's openness to appearances (phainomena ) and opinions (endoxa ) was accorded prominence especially thanks to the work of G. Nussbaum reads Aristotle's departure from Plato and Parmenides with regard to appearances as an indication of a profound commitment to the ways of his cultural and...