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4 – Travailler sur la durée

4 – Travailler sur la durée
Our species can’t seem to escape big data. We have more data inputs, storage, and computing resources than ever, so Homo sapiens naturally does what it has always done when given new tools: It goes even bigger, higher, and bolder. We did it in buildings and now we’re doing it in data. Sure, big data is a powerful lens — some would even argue a liberating one — for looking at our world. But no matter how big that data is or what insights we glean from it, it is still just a snapshot: a moment in time. Samuel Arbesman is an applied mathematician and network scientist. By “long” data, I mean datasets that have massive historical sweep — taking you from the dawn of civilization to the present day. Because as beautiful as a snapshot is, how much richer is a moving picture, one that allows us to see how processes and interactions unfold over time? We’re a species that evolves over ages — not just short hype cycles — so we can’t ignore datasets of long timescale. Editor: Sonal Chokshi @smc90 Related:  Science, technology and innovation to October 2013

5 – Sortir de la tyrannie du présent La quantité massive de données dont nous disposons sur tous les sujets, des sciences sociales aux systèmes environnementaux, nous laisse espérer la possibilité de mieux comprendre le monde dans lequel nous vivons. Mais les arbres ne cachent-ils pas la forêt ? Le mathématicien Samuel Arbesman (@arbesman) affirme dans Wired qu'il nous faut désormais compléter ces big data par les "long data" : des informations sur les phénomènes lents, se développant sur le très long terme. Pour cela, nous devons collecter et surtout interpréter des données s'étendant sur plusieurs siècles, voire des millénaires. Un exemple de ce genre de travail, cité par Arbesman, est l'oeuvre Jared Diamond, auteur de Guns, Germs and Steel (traduit en français sous le titre De l’inégalité parmi les sociétés - Wikipédia). Si ces "long data" peuvent présenter un grand intérêt pour les historiens, sont-elles vraiment importantes pour qui cherche à envisager le futur ? Vers la psychohistoire - et au-delà ! Rémi Sussan

Cradle turns smartphone into handheld biosensor CHAMPAIGN, Ill. - Researchers and physicians in the field could soon run on-the-spot tests for environmental toxins, medical diagnostics, food safety and more with their smartphones. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign researchers have developed a cradle and app for the iPhone that uses the phone's built-in camera and processing power as a biosensor to detect toxins, proteins, bacteria, viruses and other molecules. Having such sensitive biosensing capabilities in the field could enable on-the-spot tracking of groundwater contamination, combine the phone's GPS data with biosensing data to map the spread of pathogens, or provide immediate and inexpensive medical diagnostic tests in field clinics or contaminant checks in the food processing and distribution chain. "We're interested in biodetection that needs to be performed outside of the laboratory," said team leader Brian T. At the heart of the biosensor is a photonic crystal.

Revolutionary "Superman" Memory Crystals Can Store Data Virtually Forever Quartz Crystal photo from Shutterstock While most of us are just getting used to the idea of 3D printing, scientists are already working on technological marvels that operate two dimensions deeper. Researchers at the University of Southampton have succeeded in recording and retrieving five dimensional digital data using a quartz crystal. The ‘Superman’ memory crystal is a futuristic storage technique with unprecedented features – including a 360 terabyte per disc data capacity, thermal stability up to 1000°C and a practically unlimited lifetime. We’ve all seen those sci-fi movies where a gorgeous alien shoves a pointy crystal into some mega computer and the world is saved. So how does it work? “The self-assembled nanostructures change the way light travels through glass, modifying polarization of light that can then be read by combination of optical microscope and a polarizer, similar to that found in Polaroid sunglasses,” states the release. Via Eureakalert and DVice

3 – Quelles orientations pour la recherche en data mining Le data mining a évolué du point de vue des thématiques de recherche. Les sujets d’aujourd’hui sont pilotés par deux problématiques. La première s’emploie à intégrer de nouvelles possibilités techniques de calcul distribué qu’il s’agisse du Cloud ou des architectures multiprocesseurs. La seconde s’emploie à analyser de nouveaux sujets d’étude comme les réseaux sociaux. Les premiers demandent de repenser les outils actuels pour pouvoir profiter des nouvelles opportunités technologiques en matière de puissance de calcul. Les seconds sont de nouveaux sujets d’études partiellement traités par les thématiques actuelles. Paul Erdös à la fois sujet d’étude et personnage important de l’étude des graphes sociaux. Il convient alors de penser les algorithmes de manières parallélisables ou d’en penser de nouveaux. Les réseaux sociaux fournissent des thématiques nouvelles permettant également de repenser des problèmes existants. L’étude des réseaux sociaux ne se limite pas à Facebook et consorts.

New Zealand Man is 3D-Printing a Fully-Functional 1961 Aston Martin Replica New Zealander Ivan Sentch is 3D printing an entire 1961 Aston Martin DB4 replica! Using a CAD rendering from TurboSquid, which he modified to suit his design goals, Sentch has so far produced 2,500 fiberglass molds and four four-inch sections that he has mounted on a wooden frame and glued into place. He spent about $2,000 on plastics for the 3D printing, and now plans to build a mold for a fiberglass exterior shell. There are only 1,200 existing models of the 1961 Aston Martin DB4 in the world, each costing between several hundred thousand to $1 million on the auction circuit. Because of its limited availability, software engineers can’t get a hold of detailed designs, which eventually forced Sentch to crib a CAD rendering from TurboSquid to get his car built. It may not look like it, but Sentch has been using the 3D printing technology only since last December. So far he’s spent about $2,000 on the 3D printing material and still plans to create the exterior shell out of fiberglass.

Oh, those crazy Frenchies: Facebook faces family photo tax in France High performance access to file storage Facebook should pay the French government for hosting the holiday photos and status updates of the French people, a new report commissioned by the French government has suggested. The new 200-page report* on taxing the digital economy - commissioned by four French Cabinet Ministers - proposes that France should tax data collection. The touted idea would see new tax bills from the French government landing on Google, Facebook, Amazon and any other web companies that store data about their French users. The report was commissioned in July by Fleur Pellerin, France's Minister for Small and Medium Enterprise, Innovation and the Digital Economy, backed by three colleagues amid government frustration about the low tax American web giants were paying in France. Web companies pay under 1 per cent of what a standard French company would pay in tax, according to figures from Le Monde. French wonks: Let's tax data like we tax pollution

7 – Comment protéger, traiter, valoriser les données ? Protéger les donnéesL’utilité des données pouvant se révéler à l’avenir, il paraît essentiel de conserver et protéger les données en vue d’usages futurs. Les chercheurs du LIRIS, Laboratoire d’InfoRmatique en image et Systèmes d’information, comme Jean-François Boulicaut, insistent beaucoup sur ce point, s’étonnant de « voir à quel point les propriétaires de données, ceux qui collectent les données, mésestiment les possibilités d’exploitation qui pourront en être faites ». Pour les chercheurs qui travaillent à la valorisation des données, le développement de nouveaux services et la découverte de connaissances, la donnée est une matière première essentielle qui doit rester dans le domaine publique. « Nous ne savons pas encore exactement ce que nous allons pouvoir faire avec les données. Mais il faut préserver cette matière première car ensuite, ce ne sera la peine d’exécuter de nouveaux services sur des données qui n’existeront plus ou pour lesquelles il faudra payer cher.

Chinese Scientists Grow False Teeth From Human Urine Over the years scientists have made false teeth from a variety of materials – from cuspids crafted out of animal bone to chompers made from wood and gold. However a group of Chinese scientists just announced that they have successfully grown “rudimentary teeth” from an extremely unlikely and slightly unsettling source: human pee. According to the research, published in Cell Regeneration Journal, the tiny tooth-like structures were grown from stem cells harvested from urine. While the scientists believe it could herald a new, albeit disturbing, age for false teeth, stem cell researchers believe they could have several hurdles to overcome. The Chinese research team, which is based at the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health used urine as it contains cells that are normally passed out of the body – but in the laboratory they can be come stem cells. These cells were then mixed with organic material to form teeth. + Cell Regeneration Journal via BBC News Images © Wonderlane

20 Game-Changing Technology Trends That Will Create Both Disruption and Opportunity on a Global Level | Flash Foresights from Daniel Burrus No matter what industry you’re in, your company can’t survive without technology. And these days, even non-technical employees know that technology goes way beyond desktop computers and networks. From smart phones and tablet computers to mobile apps and cloud-based technology, there’s a plethora of technological advancements to not only keep track of, but also to profit from. Over the next five short years the following game-changing technologies will transform how we sell, market, communicate, collaborate, educate, train, innovate, and much more. Rapid Growth of Big Data. Spot Your Own Hard TrendsAre these the only game-changing technology-driven trends to be aware of? Visit www.Burrus.com for more information.

8 – Développer une philanthropie des données The conversation around Data Philanthropy - a term which describes a new form of partnership in which private sector companies share data for public benefit - has advanced on four distinct but related levels since its emergence at the World Economic Forum in Davos in 2011: 1. Conceptual development: discourse and debate Discussions about the concept of Data Philanthropy, or private sector data sharing, have gained momentum and moved forward, reaching a broader audience. In an article about the issue, Fast Company’s Co.Exist summarized: 'The next movement in charitable giving and corporate citizenship may be for corporations and governments to donate data, which could be used to help track diseases, avert economic crises, relieve traffic congestion, and aid development.The public sector isn’t, however, the only one to gain from Data Philanthropy: companies donating data can get advantage from it too.' 2. 3. A handful of pioneers have been testing the waters of private sector data sharing.

Researchers claim 3-D printers pose 'health risk' CHICAGO — Three-dimensional printers using the fused deposition molding (FDM) process could pose a health risk to operators, according to researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology in the U.S. and the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Lyon, France. Writing in the journal Atmospheric Environment, Brent Stephens, Parham Azimi, Zeineb El Orch and Tiffanie Ramos note that “heated thermoplastic extrusion and deposition … is a process that has been shown to have significant aerosol emissions in industrial environments. “Because most of these devices [consumer FDM 3-D printers] are currently sold as standalone devices without any exhaust ventilation or filtration accessories, results herein suggest caution should be used when operating in inadequately ventilated or unfiltered indoor environments.” The researchers carried out their tests at a 3-D printing bureau in Chicago, The 3D Printing Experience.

Harper Reed, Obama’s Data Guru, Gets Voters to Engage—and Provide Their Info Along the Way | 80beats What do custom-designed T-shirts and presidential campaigns have in common? Harper Reed, chief technology officer for the Obama campaign, rose to prominence because he knew the answer: They both can benefit from websites that engage users and encourage community participation—and, in the process, gather valuable data. In a profile at Mother Jones, Tim Murphy describes how such potentially powerful and jealously guarded tech strategies—Obama’s go by codenames like “Narwhal” and “Dreamcatcher”—work. Reed got his start at Threadless, a website that sells quirky T-shirts to hipsters. But as Murphy details, the site didn’t just make shirts and expect people to buy them; it was a social forum that asked for their input every step of the way: Threadless wasn’t the first company to market arty apparel to the Wicker Park set, but its genius lay in its model. Now chief technology officer of the Obama campaign, Reed has now created a grassroots organizing website called Dashboard.

10 – Partager les données pour améliorer leur utilisation The digital revolution of the first decade of this new century has brought many wonders, yet it has also has ushered in a bewildering array of unanticipated consequences. We now find ourselves in a volatile and hyperconnected world where risk has been globalized. Our tightly-coupled systems have become interdependent, creating feedback loops so complex that predictive analysis is of little use. However, the same technologies that connect us to one another have also turned all of us into prolific producers of data, and this new data may hold the keys to mitigating much of the volatility and uncert ainty that now confronts us. Data Visible and Invisible Today there is a tremendous amount of useful data available online, from user-generated content such as news, blogs, and social media, to the structured data being shared through open data initiatives. Data Philanthropy There are other models emerging as well. We are pretty sure the patterns are there.

The Higher Education Bubble Begins To Burst The Higher Education Bubble Begins To Burst Check out this New York Times article on the beginning of the bursting of the higher education bubble. In the 2012-2013 school year enrollment in for-profit and community colleges dropped. Now enrollment in 4 year non-profit colleges has begun dropping too. A Wall Street Journal article makes similar points. Some colleges will close. The number of kids turning 18 has begun to contract. I expect to a substantial shift toward online learning in order to save costs, speed up education, and get far greater convenience. The rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs) will let most students watch higher quality lectures than they can watch at which ever university they attend.

Plutôt que de nous focaliser sur les Big Data, si on prêtait attention aux Long Data – Wired.com
Pour le mathématicien Samuel Arbesman, plus que les Big Data, nous devrions porter attention aux Long Data, aux données qui permettent d’avoir un large balayage historique. Pourquoi ? Parce qu’elles nous permettent non pas d’avoir un instantané, mais de voir les processus et interactions qui se déroulent au fil du temps. Elles permettent de comprendre comment le monde change et comment nous changeons avec lui. Bref, nous permettre de mieux appréhender notre avenir. by frv100frv100 Mar 1

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