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In its earliest days, the first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, exhibited elements of direct democracy (shura).[1] It was led, at first, by Muhammad's immediate disciples and family as a continuation of the religious systems he had introduced. The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives.[2] Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God (Allah) from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", Muhammad's direct descendents). From the end of the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first of these was the Umayyad dynasty, followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid and finally the Ottoman dynasty. The caliphate was "the core leader concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries".[3] History[edit] Rashidun (632–661)[edit] Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent Related:  HIDDEN AGENDAS

Alignment (Dungeons & Dragons) In the Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) fantasy role-playing game, alignment is a categorization of the ethical (Law/Chaos axis) and moral (Good/Evil axis) perspective of people, creatures and societies. The earliest edition of D&D allowed players to choose among three alignments when creating a character: Lawful, implying honor and respect for society's rules; chaotic, implying the opposite; and neutral, meaning neither. Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D) introduced a second axis of Good, Neutral and Evil, offering a combination of nine alignments.[1][2] The D&D Basic Set retained the system of three alignments, keeping it through the D&D Rules Cyclopedia. The nine alignments can be represented in a grid, as follows: This schema of nine alignments was used throughout the original AD&D and the second edition of AD&D, as well as the successor game, the third edition of D&D. The 1977 printing of the Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set added the good/evil alignment axis to the existing law/chaos axis.

Sent worldwide, Shannon Hick’s “iconic” Sandy Hook photo was faked Sent worldwide, Shannon Hick’s “iconic” Sandy Hook photo was faked by Dennis Cimino with Jim Fetzer “It’s easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled”–Mark Twain Called “the iconic photograph” of the Sandy Hook school massacre and attributed to the Newtown Bee Associate Editor, Shannon Hicks, it was transmitted around the world and created an indelible impression of police leading students to safety away from the crime scene. According to TIME, “At 10:09 am, 10 minutes after she climbed out of her vehicle, she snapped the shutter on an elementary school class being led out of the school by two Connecticut State Police officers. ‘I knew that, coming out of the building — as terrified as they were — those children were safe,’ Hicks said, of the photograph soon to grace the front pages of newspapers, magazines, and nearly every breaking news website around the world. The only problem with this story is that it is false! The Sandy Hook “iconic photo” is a fraud

Batman (military) A batman (or batwoman) is a soldier or airman assigned to a commissioned officer as a personal servant. Before the advent of motorized transport, an officer's batman was also in charge of the officer's "bat-horse" that carried the pack saddle with his officer's kit during a campaign. The term is derived from the obsolete bat, meaning "pack saddle" (from French bât, from Old French bast, from Late Latin bastum), and man. A batman's duties often include: acting as a "runner" to convey orders from the officer to subordinatesmaintaining the officer's uniform and personal equipment as a valetdriving the officer's vehicle, sometimes under combat conditionsacting as the officer's bodyguard in combatother miscellaneous tasks the officer does not have time or inclination to do The action of serving as a batman was referred to as "batting". In the French Army the term for batman was ordonnance. The old British term "orderly" continued into the post-independence Indian Army. J.

The Magdalene Sisters (2002) Rogues gallery A rogues gallery (or rogues' gallery) is a police collection of pictures or photographs of criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes. The term is also used figuratively for any group of shady characters or the line-up of "mugshot" photographs that might be displayed in the halls of a dormitory or workplace. History[edit] Inspector Thomas Byrnes of the late-19th-century New York City Police Department popularized the term with his collection of photographs of known criminals, which was used for witness identification. Since the creation of various comic book superheroes, the term has also come to mean a grouping of these heroes' recurring supervillain foes. See also[edit] References[edit]

Is Everything in the Mainstream Media Fake? – 6 Examples of Media Manipulation The world of television and modern media has become a tool of de-evolution, propaganda and social control. Since the reign of Edward Bernays and the rise of the Tavistock Institute in the early 20th century, nearly unlimited resources have been applied to understanding how to manipulate the human psyche through television and other forms of mass media. What we have today is an increasingly sophisticated full-spectrum assault on free will and psychological well-being, and we have come to a point where it is no longer even necessary for media institutions to attempt to hide their blatant work of manipulating public opinion, manufacturing consent, and creating winners and losers in the minds of the already brain-washed public. Here are 6 examples where truth reveals that the impression the media is conveying to a dumbed-down, unsuspecting public differs greatly from what is actually happening behind the scenes. News Media Lies, Scripting, Omissions and Obfuscations 1. Source: Buzzfeed 2. 3.

Sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship. While sacrifice often implies ritual killing, the term offering (Latin oblatio) can be used for bloodless sacrifices of cereal food or artifacts. For offerings of liquids (beverages) by pouring, the term libation is used. Terminology[edit] The Latin term came to be used of the Christian eucharist in particular, sometimes named a "bloodless sacrifice" to distinguish it from blood sacrifices. Animal sacrifice[edit] Walter Burkert theory on origins of Greek sacrifice[edit] According to Walter Burkert, a scholar of sacrifice, Greek sacrifices derived from hunting practices. In the expansion of the Athenian state, numerous oxen were needed to feed the people at the banquets and were accompanied by state festivals. Human sacrifice[edit] Human sacrifice was practiced by many ancient cultures. Judaism[edit] Christianity[edit]

HOW CHRISTIANITY WAS INVENTED: THE TRUTH! | Beyond ALL Religion Emperor Constantine Christianity is a copycat religion created by Emperor Constantine (for political purposes) based upon a myth (The Persian savior god Mithra, crucified 600 B.C. ? 400 B.C.?), which was based on other similar myths, all the way back to Chrishna of India (a mythical god that some claim was “crucified” around 1200 B.C.). There were 16 mythical crucifixions before Christ. The belief in the crucifixion of Gods was prevalent in various oriental or heathen countries long prior to the reported crucifixion of Christ. At, take a look at the book “Beyond All Religion-Beyond religious SCRIPTURES and practices that support intolerance violence and even war, A PEACEFUL WORLD AWAITS”. There were too many religions in Rome in 325 A.D. Christianity was INVENTED. Eusebius (Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine “Father of Church History“) attended the Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D. and was a friend of Emperor Constantine, who also attended and made the keynote speech. Bishop Eusebius