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In its earliest days, the first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, exhibited elements of direct democracy (shura).[1] It was led, at first, by Muhammad's immediate disciples and family as a continuation of the religious systems he had introduced. The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives.[2] Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God (Allah) from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", Muhammad's direct descendents). From the end of the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first of these was the Umayyad dynasty, followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid and finally the Ottoman dynasty. The caliphate was "the core leader concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries".[3] History[edit] Rashidun (632–661)[edit] Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent Related:  HIDDEN AGENDAS

Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (Arabic: سليمان بن عبد الملك‎) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717. His father was Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, and he was a younger brother of the previous caliph, al-Walid I. Early years[edit] Under the rule of his brother al-walid (الولید بن عبدالملك) he had been the governor of Palestine. In the tribal politics of the Near East at that time (the Qays-Yaman conflict) he allied himself to the Yamanis. Assumption of power as caliph and his appointments[edit] Sulayman was hailed as caliph on February 23, 715, the day al-Walid died. Qutaibah was considerably alarmed at the ascension of Sulayman to the throne. Sulayman appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Khurasan. Policies as caliph[edit] In the domestic scene, he had wells built in Mecca for pilgrims, and organized enforcement of prayers. Naming of his successor[edit] In A.H. 98 (716-717) Sulayman named his son Ayyub heir to the throne. Death[edit] References[edit]

Sent worldwide, Shannon Hick’s “iconic” Sandy Hook photo was faked Sent worldwide, Shannon Hick’s “iconic” Sandy Hook photo was faked by Dennis Cimino with Jim Fetzer “It’s easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled”–Mark Twain Called “the iconic photograph” of the Sandy Hook school massacre and attributed to the Newtown Bee Associate Editor, Shannon Hicks, it was transmitted around the world and created an indelible impression of police leading students to safety away from the crime scene. According to TIME, “At 10:09 am, 10 minutes after she climbed out of her vehicle, she snapped the shutter on an elementary school class being led out of the school by two Connecticut State Police officers. ‘I knew that, coming out of the building — as terrified as they were — those children were safe,’ Hicks said, of the photograph soon to grace the front pages of newspapers, magazines, and nearly every breaking news website around the world. The only problem with this story is that it is false! The Sandy Hook “iconic photo” is a fraud

Umayyad Caliphate - Wikipedia The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfah al-ʾumawiyya), also spelled Omayyad,[1] was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: الأمويون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بنو أمية, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims. The rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of AD 680–692 and the Berber Revolt of 740–743. Origins[edit] History[edit]

Umar II Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 Hijri) – 31 January 720 (16th Rajab, 101 Hijri) [1] (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز‎) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a female-line great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Umar was born around 2 November 682 in Medina. He grow up and lived there until the death of his father, after which he was summoned to Damascus by Abd al-Malik and married to his daughter Fatima. Al-Walid I's era[edit] Unlike most rulers of that era, Umar formed a council with which he administered the province. Sulayman's era[edit] Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman. Caliphate and his own era[edit] Reforms[edit] His other reforms include,[4] Taxation[edit] Military[edit] Reforming the Umayyad rule from the inside[edit]

The Magdalene Sisters (2002) Rashidun Caliphate - Wikipedia Rashidun Caliphate at greatest extent (Orthographic projection). The Rashidun Caliphate (Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ al-Khilāfah ar-Rāshidah) was the Islamic caliphate in the earliest period of Islam, comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs (Arabic: اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ al-Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn). It was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar). At its height, the Caliphate controlled an empire from the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, to the Caucasus in the north, North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west, and the Iranian plateau to Central Asia in the east. Origin[edit] Expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate. Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 History[edit] Succession of Abu Bakr[edit] Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly. Succession of Umar[edit] Election of Uthman[edit] Economy[edit]

First Fitna The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth of the Sunni Rightly Guided Caliphs It was caused by the controversial assassination of his predecessor, Uthman Ibn Affan. It lasted for the entirety of Ali's reign, and its end is marked by Muawiyah's assumption of the caliphate (founding the Umayyad dynasty), and the subsequent recorded peace treaty between him and Hassan ibn Ali. Background[edit] The Islamic State expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. In 639 Muawiyah I was appointed the Governor of Syria by Umar after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah (the Governor before him) and 25,000 other people. The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival. Family tree of some of the people involved[edit] "Tools of Shaytan!

Is Everything in the Mainstream Media Fake? – 6 Examples of Media Manipulation The world of television and modern media has become a tool of de-evolution, propaganda and social control. Since the reign of Edward Bernays and the rise of the Tavistock Institute in the early 20th century, nearly unlimited resources have been applied to understanding how to manipulate the human psyche through television and other forms of mass media. What we have today is an increasingly sophisticated full-spectrum assault on free will and psychological well-being, and we have come to a point where it is no longer even necessary for media institutions to attempt to hide their blatant work of manipulating public opinion, manufacturing consent, and creating winners and losers in the minds of the already brain-washed public. Here are 6 examples where truth reveals that the impression the media is conveying to a dumbed-down, unsuspecting public differs greatly from what is actually happening behind the scenes. News Media Lies, Scripting, Omissions and Obfuscations 1. Source: Buzzfeed 2. 3.