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In its earliest days, the first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, exhibited elements of direct democracy (shura).[1] It was led, at first, by Muhammad's immediate disciples and family as a continuation of the religious systems he had introduced. The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives.[2] Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God (Allah) from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", Muhammad's direct descendents). From the end of the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first of these was the Umayyad dynasty, followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid and finally the Ottoman dynasty. The caliphate was "the core leader concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries".[3] History[edit] Rashidun (632–661)[edit] Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent

Roman roads Roman roads (in Latin, viae - singular via) were vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 500 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.[1] They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies, officials and civilians, and the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods.[2] Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases. These major roads were often stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, and were flanked by footpaths, bridleways and drainage ditches. They were laid along accurately surveyed courses, and some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Roman systems[edit] In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during Augustus tenure, is as follows: Types[edit]

The Lifespan of A Dollar Bill | Where Has That Dollar Bill Been? Ever thought about the spare that dollar bill before you pass it through the drive-up window at your local Starbuck’s? If you’re like most people, probably not much. But consider this: that dollar bill might have traveled the world. Other unlucky bills may have never left your home town. Some bills are marked with ballpoint graffiti; with poor old George Washington have a new pair of glasses. While dollar bills get around, they don’t live long. The Brief Life of a Dollar Bill The average dollar bill has an estimated life span of 5.9 years, according to the Federal Reserve. Dollar bills get roughed-up a lot by cashiers, beaten on doughnut counters, exposed to misbehaved children at supermarkets and run-over by your car. The $5 bill has a life span of 4.9 years while the $10 comes in at 4.2 years. The $5 bill has a life span of 4.9 years while the $10 comes in at 4.2 years. The $2 What? If you think that the U.S. Comments comments

Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a Sunni Islamic state founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.[7] With conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to caliphate. The Ottomans overthrew the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) by Mehmed II.[8][9][10] With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Name[edit] History[edit] Rise (1299–1453)[edit] In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Law[edit]

Umayyad Caliphate - Wikipedia The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfah al-ʾumawiyya), also spelled Omayyad,[1] was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: الأمويون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بنو أمية, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims. The rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of AD 680–692 and the Berber Revolt of 740–743. Origins[edit] History[edit] Florida Weather in November - November Events and Festivals in Florida - Florida Events and Festivals in November October < November > December November Weather Average TemperaturesDaytona Bch: High 77°-Low 57° Fort Myers: High 81°-Low 62° Jacksonville: High 73°-Low 51° Key West: High 81°-Low 72° Miami: High 78°-Low 70° Orlando: High 79°-Low 59° Panama City: High 71°-Low 47° Pensacola: High 70°-Low 51° Tallahassee: High 73°-Low 48° Tampa: High 78°-Low 61° West Palm Bch: High 80°-Low 66° 10-Day Forecast Average Water Temperatures The water temperature for the Gulf of Mexico (West Coast) and the Atlantic Ocean (East Coast) typically in the high 70s from Central Florida north and the low 80s in the southernmost part of the state. Best Time to Go Surprisingly, the theme parks are not too crowded this month. November Events Florida's Fall Festivals Whether it's with peanuts or turn-of-the-century style, Floridians take to the streets in a variety of fall art and craft festivals. Florida Seafood Festival November 1 & 2, 2013The two-day Florida Seafood Festival is the state's oldest maritime celebration.

Likely future picture of global Islam Sunday, September 19, 2010 - Recently, Muammar Gaddafi stated that “There are signs that Allah will grant victory to Islam in Europe without sword, without gun, without conquest. We don’t need terrorists, we don’t need homicide bombers. The 50 plus million Muslims (in Europe) will turn it into the Muslim Continent within a few decades.” Irrespective of his summersaults in global politics, he could be right this time. The picture gets clearer if one looks at various research works on demographic changes of western countries in relation to the Muslim immigration and their fertility rate. The average Fertility Rate per family amongst the westerners is 1.65 as compared to the Muslims’ which is 8.1. As a result of this change; in France 30% of children age 20 years and below are Muslims. Four years ago, a meeting of 24 countries from OIC was held in Chicago. Spread poverty to lethal levels in the third world countries with high percentage of Muslims.

Rashidun Caliphate - Wikipedia Rashidun Caliphate at greatest extent (Orthographic projection). The Rashidun Caliphate (Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ al-Khilāfah ar-Rāshidah) was the Islamic caliphate in the earliest period of Islam, comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs (Arabic: اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ al-Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn). It was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar). At its height, the Caliphate controlled an empire from the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, to the Caucasus in the north, North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west, and the Iranian plateau to Central Asia in the east. Origin[edit] Expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate. Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 History[edit] Succession of Abu Bakr[edit] Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly. Succession of Umar[edit] Election of Uthman[edit] Economy[edit]