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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the mind has a modular structure similar to that of the body, with different modular adaptations serving different functions. The adaptationist approach is steadily increasing as an influence in the general field of psychology.[2][3] The theories and findings of EP have applications in many fields, including economics, environment, health, law, management, psychiatry, politics, and literature.[8][9] Scope[edit] Principles[edit] Related:  EvolutionBIOLOGIE

Mathematical and theoretical biology Mathematical and theoretical biology is an interdisciplinary scientific research field with a range of applications in biology, biotechnology, and medicine.[1] The field may be referred to as mathematical biology or biomathematics to stress the mathematical side, or as theoretical biology to stress the biological side.[2] It includes at least four major subfields: biological mathematical modeling, relational biology/complex systems biology (CSB), bioinformatics and computational biomodeling/biocomputing. Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using a variety of applied mathematical techniques and tools. It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological, biomedical and biotechnology research. For example, in cell biology, protein interactions are often represented as "cartoon" models, which, although easy to visualize, do not accurately describe the systems studied. Importance[edit]

Pygmalion effect A corollary of the Pygmalion effect is the golem effect, in which low expectations lead to a decrease in performance.[1] The Pygmalion effect and the golem effect are forms of self-fulfilling prophecy. People will take the belief they have of themselves (negative in this case) and attribute traits of the belief with themselves and their work. This will lead them to perform closer to these expectations that they set for themselves. Studies of the Pygmalion effect are difficult to conduct. Rosenthal–Jacobson study[edit] The purpose of the experiment was to support the hypothesis that reality can be influenced by the expectations of others. All students in a single California elementary school were given a disguised IQ test at the beginning of the study. In this experiment, Rosenthal predicted that elementary school teachers may subconsciously behave in ways that facilitate and encourage the students' success. A major limitation of this experiment was its inability to be replicated well.

John Tooby John Tooby is an American anthropologist, who, together with psychologist wife Leda Cosmides, helped pioneer the field of evolutionary psychology.[1][2] Tooby received his Ph.D. in Biological Anthropology from Harvard University in 1989 and is currently Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 1992, together with Leda Cosmides and Jerome Barkow, Tooby edited The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Tooby is currently working on a book on the evolution of sexual reproduction and genetic systems.[3] Selected publications[edit] Books[edit] Barkow, J., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J., (Eds.) (1992). Papers[edit] Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1981). See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Websites Articles and media

Evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist. Evolutionary biologists study the descent of species, and the origin of new species. Subfields[edit] The study of evolution is the unifying concept in evolutionary biology. History[edit] Evolutionary biology, as an academic discipline in its own right, emerged during the period of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. Microbiology has recently developed into an evolutionary discipline. Important evolutionary biologists[edit] Many biologists have contributed to our current understanding of evolution. Journals[edit] Current research topics[edit] Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics, as should be expected given the centrality of evolution to understanding biology. References[edit] See also[edit]

Faking insanity: Forensic psychologists detect signs of malingering Illustration by Mark Alan Stamaty. When someone commits a horrific, inexplicable crime, we naturally wonder whether he’s mentally ill: Who but a crazy person could do such a thing? But when a killer acts crazy after his arrest, we also might wonder whether he’s preparing for his trial. That’s the speculation around Colorado shooter James Holmes, whose psychiatric treatment and bizarre behavior in court and prison make people wonder whether he’s truly insane or building a case for an insanity defense. It leads to the question: Can a criminal get away with faking insanity? Experts have been debating that question since the creation of the insanity defense in the mid-19th century. Today, less than 1 percent of felony defendants raise an insanity defense, and a tiny fraction of those succeed. The first step is to do a thorough review of the suspect’s history. At some point the examiner leads the discussion to the crime, which sets another trip-wire for deceivers.

Leda Cosmides Leda Cosmides, (born May 9, 1957 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American psychologist, who, together with anthropologist husband John Tooby, helped develop the field of evolutionary psychology. Cosmides originally studied biology at Radcliffe College/Harvard University, receiving her A.B. in 1979. While an undergraduate she was influenced by the renowned evolutionary biologist Robert L. Trivers who was her advisor. In 1992, together with John Tooby and Jerome Barkow, Cosmides edited The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Cosmides was awarded the 1988 American Association for the Advancement of Science Prize for Behavioral Science Research,[1] the 1993 American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career Contribution to Psychology, a Guggenheim Fellowship and the 2005 National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award. Selected publications[edit] Books Papers See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Media

Evolution in Action: Lizard Moving From Eggs to Live Birth Evolution has been caught in the act, according to scientists who are decoding how a species of Australian lizard is abandoning egg-laying in favor of live birth. Along the warm coastal lowlands of New South Wales (map), the yellow-bellied three-toed skink lays eggs to reproduce. But individuals of the same species living in the state's higher, colder mountains are almost all giving birth to live young. Only two other modern reptiles—another skink species and a European lizard—use both types of reproduction. Evolutionary records shows that nearly a hundred reptile lineages have independently made the transition from egg-laying to live birth in the past, and today about 20 percent of all living snakes and lizards give birth to live young only. But modern reptiles that have live young provide only a single snapshot on a long evolutionary time line, said study co-author James Stewart, a biologist at East Tennessee State University. Eggs-to-Baby Switch Creates Nutrient Problem

Your DNA loves horror movies In The Exorcist, a little girl is possessed by a demon. Although the film takes place in Western culture, even a naked rainforest Indian would be scared by the scenes with the creepy, possessed girl with the yellow cat eyes. Our DNA contains a mechanism that makes us fear rottenness and predators, says Danish researcher. The little girl sits in bed looking like a dissolved corpse. ”Your mother's in here with us, Karras. Suddenly she opens her mouth and a thick squirt of green slime hits the priest’s face. As you may have guessed by now, this is a famous scene from the classic horror movie The Exorcist. It may seem a bit odd that something this horrible and disgusting can achieve the popularity that it has. “They had to train their reactions to stressful situations, and the desire to do so became stored in their DNA – which we still carry today. Evolution taught us to fear zombies He thinks it’s obvious that our fascination with horror is genetic in some way or other. Mathias Clasen

Éthologie Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'éthologie est l'étude du comportement des diverses espèces animales, dans leur milieu naturel ou non[1]. Cette branche zoologique de la biologie a été créée en 1854 par le naturaliste Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Au niveau théorique, l'éthologie peut s'apparenter à la biologie du comportement et surtout à la biologie de l'interaction intraspécifique. L'évolution récente de cette discipline biologique est marquée par les études scientifiques de longue haleine sur les comportements animaux, dont les trois plus notoires ont consacré l'éthologie par le prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine de 1973. Définition et histoire[modifier | modifier le code] Le terme éthologie signifie étymologiquement « étude des mœurs ». Ce domaine sous le nom générique englobe surtout l'étude du comportement animal tel qu'il peut être observé chez l'animal sauvage ou domestiqué, dans son milieu naturel ou en captivité. Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Evolution Entrance These exhibits trace evolutionary thought as it has developed over time, pausing to ponder the contributions of scientists and thinkers including Aristotle, Darwin, Wallace, and many others. Explore the theory of evolution. Learn about the history of evolutionary thought. There are many other great places to look on-line for information about evolution. Here are a few of our favorites: — Visit Understanding Evolution, a new site launched in February 2004 to meet the needs of K-12 teachers. — Browse the Talk Origins Archive, a rich source of information about evolution and the evolution/creation controversy. — Visit the National Center for Science Education website, a nationally-recognized clearinghouse for information and advice on teaching evolution in the classroom.