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Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy
Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation. §Overview[edit] Edwin Nevis described Gestalt therapy as "a conceptual and methodological base from which helping professionals can craft their practice".[1] In the same volume Joel Latner stated that Gestalt therapy is built upon two central ideas: that the most helpful focus of psychotherapy is the experiential present moment, and that everyone is caught in webs of relationships; thus, it is only possible to know ourselves against the background of our relationship to the other.[2] The historical development of Gestalt therapy (described below) discloses the influences that generated these two ideas. §Experimental freedom[edit]

Experience Experience comprises knowledge of or skill of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event.[1] The history of the word experience aligns it closely with the concept of experiment. For example, the word experience could be used in a statement like: "I have experience in fishing". The concept of experience generally refers to know-how or procedural knowledge, rather than propositional knowledge: on-the-job training rather than book-learning. Philosophers dub knowledge based on experience "empirical knowledge" or "a posteriori knowledge". The interrogation of experience has a long tradition in continental philosophy. Experience plays an important role in the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard. A person with considerable experience in a specific field can gain a reputation as an expert. Types of experience[edit] One may also differentiate between (for example) physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, vicarious and virtual experience(s). Writing[edit]

Structuralism (psychology) Structuralism in psychology refers to a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt, and his mentee Edward B. Titchener that brought Wundt's idea to the United States. Depending on who you asked it will be said either of them formally began this field of psychology but it is certain that Titchener expanded on what Wundt originally provided, and was also responsible for bringing this idea to America. Titchener said that only observable events constituted science and that any speculation concerning unobservable events has no place in society (this view was similar to the one expressed by Ernst Mach). It is true, nevertheless, that observation is the single and proprietary method of science, and that experiment, regarded as scientific method, is nothing else than observation safeguarded and assisted.[6] Titchener believed that the goal of psychology was to study mind and consciousness. and in his book An Outline of Psychology: Danziger, Kurt.

Philosophy of history The term philosophy of history refers to the theoretical aspect of history, in two senses. It is customary to distinguish critical philosophy of history from speculative philosophy of history . Critical philosophy of history is the "theory" aspect of the discipline of academic history, and deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence, the degree to which objectivity is possible, etc. Speculative philosophy of history is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. [ 1 ] Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Part of Marxism, for example, is speculative philosophy of history. Sometimes critical philosophy of history is included under historiography . Speculative philosophy of history asks at least three basic questions: [ edit ] Pre-modern history [ edit ] Sustainable History

47 Mind-Blowing Psychology-Proven Facts You Should Know About Yourself I’ve decided to start a series called 100 Things You Should Know about People. As in: 100 things you should know if you are going to design an effective and persuasive website, web application or software application. Or maybe just 100 things that everyone should know about humans! The order that I’ll present these 100 things is going to be pretty random. So the fact that this first one is first doesn’t mean that’s it’s the most important.. just that it came to mind first. Dr. <div class="slide-intro-bottom"><a href="

INTP Originally published in Wholeness Lies WithinCopyright © 1986-2002, Terence Duniho; © 2002-2010, Fergus Duniho The following description was written by my father and may reflect some of his personal experience with me, but he also spent plenty of time gaining firsthand knowledge of all the types through type conferences and workshops, and I was by no means the only member of my type known to him. During the mid 20th century, Carl Jung identified eight personality types and divided them into sixteen subtypes. My type is Introverted Thinker [Ti], and my subtype relies on Extraverted Intuition [Ne] as an auxiliary function. The MBTI calls this type INTP, while Socionics calls it INTj. These are mere semantic differences between two theories derived from the same original work. Introversion Rather than beginning with proof positive that this is my type, I will work up to it. The psychologist Hans Eyesenck gave a physiological model for understanding introversion vs. extraversion. Thinking

Fallacy A fallacy is the use of poor, or invalid, reasoning for the construction of an argument.[1][2] A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception, while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance. Fallacies are commonly divided into "formal" and "informal". Formal fallacy[edit] Main article: Formal fallacy A formal fallacy is a common error of thinking that can neatly be expressed in standard system of logic.[1] An argument that is formally fallacious is rendered invalid due to a flaw in its logical structure. The presence of a formal fallacy in a deductive argument does not imply anything about the argument's premises or its conclusion. Common examples[edit] Aristotle's Fallacies[edit] Aristotle was the first to systematize logical errors into a list. Whately's grouping of fallacies[edit] Intentional fallacies[edit] Deductive fallacy[edit]

8 Ways to be UBER Charismatic What did JFK, Marilyn Monroe and Hitler all have in common? They were all renowned charismatics that lit up every room they entered. You’ve most likely met one of these kinds before. Robert Greene studied these people and detailed the methods one can use to become a charismatic in his book “The Art of Seduction.” Purpose Pick a cause, a goal, a vision and live it. Mystery Become mysterious (like Bruce Wayne) by being unpredictable. Saintliness Think Gandhi. Eloquence Speak slowly and hypnotically, with random pauses if needed. Theatricality Be larger than life. Danger/Spontaneity Radiate dangerous, rebellious sexuality. Vulnerability Have a soft side and love your followers. Magnetism Develop a piercing gaze. DO NOT COMMENT.

Big Five personality traits In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The theory based on the Big Five factors is called the five-factor model (FFM).[1] The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE. The Big Five model is able to account for different traits in personality without overlapping. §Five factors[edit] A summary of the factors of the Big Five and their constituent traits, such that they form the acronym OCEAN:[4] Openness to experience: (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). The initial model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961[11] but failed to reach an academic audience until the 1980s. §Openness to experience[edit] §Sample items[edit] §Conscientiousness[edit] §Sample items[edit] §Extraversion[edit] §Sample items[edit] §Agreeableness[edit]

Forte Communication Style Profile The Forté Profile is a quantitatively validated communication style profiling instrument. A Forté profile identifies a person’s natural communication style preferences and strengths, how they have been adapting to a specific individual, team and/or environment, and how they are most likely coming across to others. Forté also identifies an individual’s current logic style, current stamina level, and current feelings about goal attainment. History[edit] Forte was established by CD Morgan III in 1978. Early research into lexical theory (of or relating to words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction) was done by Galton, (1884) and suggested that personality traits are captured in the words that people use to describe one another. In the mid-1970s, Morgan reviewed over 200 instruments seeking a strengths-based survey and report. Communication style analysis determines, independently, the isolated reactive value of an adjective or descriptor.

Resonance In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's resonant frequencies, or resonance frequencies. At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the system stores vibrational energy. Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a pendulum). Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical resonance, acoustic resonance, electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions. Examples[edit] Resonance occurs widely in nature, and is exploited in many manmade devices. Theory[edit] Resonators[edit] , the length of a roundtrip is . .

Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Since then, psychoanalysis has expanded and been revised, reformed and developed in different directions. This was initially by Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung who went on to develop their own ideas independently from Freud. Later neo-Freudians included Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan. The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following: Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development. Psychoanalysis has received criticism from a wide variety of sources. History[edit] 1890s[edit] The idea of psychoanalysis first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud. 1900–1940s[edit] 1940s–present[edit]

Francis Galton Sir Francis Galton, FRS (/ˈfrɑːnsɪs ˈɡɔːltən/; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian polymath: anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies. He was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself[1] and the phrase "nature versus nurture".[2] His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.[3] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Louisa Jane Butler Middle years[edit]

Id, ego and super-ego Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely symbolic concepts about the mind and do not correspond to actual somatic structures of the brain (such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience). The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought: the "structural model" (which succeeded his "economic model" and "topographical model") was first discussed in his 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years later in his The Ego and the Id. Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses. Id[edit] According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: In the id, "contrary impulses exist side by side, without cancelling each other out. ... Developmentally, the id precedes the ego; i.e., the psychic apparatus begins, at birth, as an undifferentiated id, part of which then develops into a structured ego.

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