Philosophy of history The term philosophy of history refers to the theoretical aspect of history, in two senses. It is customary to distinguish critical philosophy of history from speculative philosophy of history . Critical philosophy of history is the "theory" aspect of the discipline of academic history, and deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence, the degree to which objectivity is possible, etc. Speculative philosophy of history is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. [ 1 ] Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Part of Marxism, for example, is speculative philosophy of history. Sometimes critical philosophy of history is included under historiography . Speculative philosophy of history asks at least three basic questions: [ edit ] Pre-modern history [ edit ] Sustainable History
Performance Art Movement, Artists and Major Works | The Art Story "The line between art and life should be kept as fluid, and perhaps indistinct, as possible." Synopsis Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. Key Ideas The foremost purpose of performance art has almost always been to challenge the conventions of traditional forms of visual art such as painting and sculpture. Performance art borrows styles and ideas from other forms of art, or sometimes from other forms of activity not associated with art, like ritual, or work-like tasks. Some varieties of performance from the post-war period are commonly described as "actions." The focus on the body in so much Performance art of the 1960s has sometimes been seen as a consequence of the abandonment of conventional mediums. The performance art of the 1960s can be seen as just one of the many disparate trends that developed in the wake of Minimalism. Most Important Art Performance Art Overview Continues Below Beginnings
Case-based reasoning It has been argued that case-based reasoning is not only a powerful method for computer reasoning, but also a pervasive behavior in everyday human problem solving; or, more radically, that all reasoning is based on past cases personally experienced. This view is related to prototype theory, which is most deeply explored in cognitive science. Process Case-based reasoning has been formalized for purposes of computer reasoning as a four-step process: Retrieve: Given a target problem, retrieve from memory cases relevant to solving it. A case consists of a problem, its solution, and, typically, annotations about how the solution was derived. Comparison to other methods At first glance, CBR may seem similar to the rule induction algorithms of machine learning. Criticism Critics of CBR argue that it is an approach that accepts anecdotal evidence as its main operating principle. History See also References For further reading External links
Feldenkrais wiki Feldenkrais illustrating the function of the human skeleton in sitting. The Feldenkrais Method, often referred to simply as "Feldenkrais", is a somatic educational system designed by Moshé Feldenkrais (1904–1984). Feldenkrais aims to reduce pain or limitations in movement, to improve physical function, and to promote general wellbeing by increasing students' awareness of themselves and by expanding students' movement repertoire. Approach Feldenkrais taught that increasing a person's kinesthetic and proprioceptive self-awareness of functional movement could lead to increased function, reduced pain, and greater ease and pleasure of movement. Moshé Feldenkrais (pictured bottom) practising Judo, one of the major influences on his work. Feldenkrais is used to improve movement patterns rather than to treat specific injuries or illnesses. Feldenkrais demonstrating Functional Integration Scientific studies Certification by Feldenkrais Guild References Sources
Constructive Aspect of Visual Perception: A Gestalt Field Theory Principle of Visual Reification Suggests a Phase Conjugate By Steven Lehar Many Gestalt illusions reveal a constructive, or generative aspect of perceptual processing where the experience contains more explicit spatial information than the visual stimulus on which it is based. The experience of Gestalt illusions often appears as volumetric spatial structures bounded by continuous colored surfaces embedded in a volumetric space. These, and many other phenomena, suggest a field theory principle of visual representation and computation in the brain. That is, an essential aspect of neurocomputation involves extended spatial fields of energy interacting in lawful ways across the tissue of the brain, as a spatial computation taking place in a spatial medium. Introduction There are many aspects of sensory and perceptual experience that exhibit a continuous spatial nature suggestive of a field theory principle of computation and/or representation in the brain. Figure 1. Field Theory Grassfire Metaphor Figure 2. Explicit versus Implicit Representation
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses The Hegel Museum Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Life Early years Childhood Hegel was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, in the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. At age of three Hegel went to the "German School". In 1776 Hegel entered Stuttgart's Gymnasium Illustre. Tübingen (1788-93) At the age of eighteen Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen), where two fellow students were to become vital to his development - poet Friedrich Hölderlin, and philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Bern (1793–96) and Frankfurt (1797–1801)
When You Hit a Brick Wall, Turn to Stone Like Carl Jung 47Share Synopsis Carl Jung played with stones during a time of deep confusion. “It would be no exaggeration to call it a state of disorientation.” - Carl Jung At 37 years old, Carl Jung became disoriented and entered a phase of fertile confusion. When that voice calls and says, “Look at how you’re living your life. Or we get stuck in the pit of self-doubt. But when Jung got challenged on his own soul stuff, he didn’t hang up. His ability to stay creatively in disorientation led, in many ways, to break-throughs in his thinking that in turn would influence decades later the success of great films like Thelma and Louise and the success of books like Seth Godin’s The Icarus Deception. And here’s the take-away: How Jung found his way out of that disorientation could be an example to any of us who at times doubt our artistic and entrepreneurial role in the world, who doubt our own integrity, or who hit a creative impasse. Jung was free. But then the voice called. Turn to Stone So, what did Jung do?
List of cognitive biases Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person. Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non-human animals as well. For example, hyperbolic discounting has been observed in rats, pigeons, and monkeys. Decision-making, belief, and behavioral biases Social biases Most of these biases are labeled as attributional biases. See also
Alexander wiki The Alexander technique, named after Frederick Matthias Alexander, teaches people how to stop using unnecessary levels of muscular and mental tension during their everyday activities. It is an educational process rather than a relaxation technique or form of exercise. The Alexander technique has been shown to be helpful for back pain and Parkinson's. There is insufficient evidence to determine if it has any effect in asthma. Practitioners say that such problems are often caused by repeated misuse of the body over a long period of time, for example, by standing or sitting with one's weight unevenly distributed, holding one's head incorrectly, or walking or running inefficiently. The purpose of the Alexander technique is to help people unlearn maladaptive physical habits and return to a balanced state of rest and poise in which the body is well-aligned. History Alexander was a Shakespearean orator who developed voice loss during his performances. Process End-gaining
Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt – "shape or form") is a theory of mind of the Berlin School. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that the human mind considers objects in their entirety before, or in parallel with, perception of their individual parts; suggesting the whole is other than the sum of its parts. In the domain of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli. Origins Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (Contributions to the Analysis of Sensations, 1886), in formulating their very similar concepts of gestalt and figural moment, respectively. These laws took several forms, such as the grouping of similar, or proximate, objects together, within this global process. Gestalt therapy Invariance
Experience Experience comprises knowledge of or skill of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event. The history of the word experience aligns it closely with the concept of experiment. For example, the word experience could be used in a statement like: "I have experience in fishing". The concept of experience generally refers to know-how or procedural knowledge, rather than propositional knowledge: on-the-job training rather than book-learning. Philosophers dub knowledge based on experience "empirical knowledge" or "a posteriori knowledge". The interrogation of experience has a long tradition in continental philosophy. Experience plays an important role in the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard. A person with considerable experience in a specific field can gain a reputation as an expert. Types of experience One may also differentiate between (for example) physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, vicarious and virtual experience(s). Writing
The 12 Common Archetypes The 12 Common Archetypes By Carl Golden The term "archetype" has its origins in ancient Greek. The root words are archein, which means "original or old"; and typos, which means "pattern, model or type". The combined meaning is an "original pattern" of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are derived, copied, modeled, or emulated. The psychologist, Carl Gustav Jung, used the concept of archetype in his theory of the human psyche. Although there are many different archetypes, Jung defined twelve primary types that symbolize basic human motivations. Most, if not all, people have several archetypes at play in their personality construct; however, one archetype tends to dominate the personality in general. Return Home
Interpersonal attraction Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. Interpersonal attraction, the process, is distinct from perceptions of physical attractiveness which involves views of what is and is not considered beautiful or attractive. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction is related to how much we like, dislike, or hate someone. It can be viewed as a force acting between two people that tends to draw them together and resist their separation. Measurement Any given interaction is characterized by a certain level of intensity, which is conveyed by individual and interpersonal behavior, including the more subtle nonverbal behavioral information of interpersonal attraction. Causes Propinquity effect Mere exposure/exposure effect Similarity attraction effect The lookalike effect plays an important role called self-affirmation.