Case-based reasoning It has been argued that case-based reasoning is not only a powerful method for computer reasoning, but also a pervasive behavior in everyday human problem solving; or, more radically, that all reasoning is based on past cases personally experienced. This view is related to prototype theory, which is most deeply explored in cognitive science. Process Case-based reasoning has been formalized for purposes of computer reasoning as a four-step process: Retrieve: Given a target problem, retrieve from memory cases relevant to solving it. A case consists of a problem, its solution, and, typically, annotations about how the solution was derived. Comparison to other methods At first glance, CBR may seem similar to the rule induction algorithms of machine learning. Criticism Critics of CBR argue that it is an approach that accepts anecdotal evidence as its main operating principle. History See also References For further reading External links
Feldenkrais wiki Feldenkrais illustrating the function of the human skeleton in sitting. The Feldenkrais Method, often referred to simply as "Feldenkrais", is a somatic educational system designed by Moshé Feldenkrais (1904–1984). Feldenkrais aims to reduce pain or limitations in movement, to improve physical function, and to promote general wellbeing by increasing students' awareness of themselves and by expanding students' movement repertoire. Approach Feldenkrais taught that increasing a person's kinesthetic and proprioceptive self-awareness of functional movement could lead to increased function, reduced pain, and greater ease and pleasure of movement. Moshé Feldenkrais (pictured bottom) practising Judo, one of the major influences on his work. Feldenkrais is used to improve movement patterns rather than to treat specific injuries or illnesses. Feldenkrais demonstrating Functional Integration Scientific studies Certification by Feldenkrais Guild References Sources
Constructive Aspect of Visual Perception: A Gestalt Field Theory Principle of Visual Reification Suggests a Phase Conjugate By Steven Lehar Many Gestalt illusions reveal a constructive, or generative aspect of perceptual processing where the experience contains more explicit spatial information than the visual stimulus on which it is based. The experience of Gestalt illusions often appears as volumetric spatial structures bounded by continuous colored surfaces embedded in a volumetric space. These, and many other phenomena, suggest a field theory principle of visual representation and computation in the brain. That is, an essential aspect of neurocomputation involves extended spatial fields of energy interacting in lawful ways across the tissue of the brain, as a spatial computation taking place in a spatial medium. Introduction There are many aspects of sensory and perceptual experience that exhibit a continuous spatial nature suggestive of a field theory principle of computation and/or representation in the brain. Figure 1. Field Theory Grassfire Metaphor Figure 2. Explicit versus Implicit Representation
List of cognitive biases Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm and/or rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology, sociology and behavioral economics. Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Several theoretical causes are known for some cognitive biases, which provides a classification of biases by their common generative mechanism (such as noisy information-processing). Gerd Gigerenzer has criticized the framing of cognitive biases as errors in judgment, and favors interpreting them as arising from rational deviations from logical thought. Explanations include information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Belief, decision-making and behavioral Social 
Alexander wiki The Alexander technique, named after Frederick Matthias Alexander, teaches people how to stop using unnecessary levels of muscular and mental tension during their everyday activities. It is an educational process rather than a relaxation technique or form of exercise. The Alexander technique has been shown to be helpful for back pain and Parkinson's. There is insufficient evidence to determine if it has any effect in asthma. Practitioners say that such problems are often caused by repeated misuse of the body over a long period of time, for example, by standing or sitting with one's weight unevenly distributed, holding one's head incorrectly, or walking or running inefficiently. The purpose of the Alexander technique is to help people unlearn maladaptive physical habits and return to a balanced state of rest and poise in which the body is well-aligned. History Alexander was a Shakespearean orator who developed voice loss during his performances. Process End-gaining
Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt – "shape or form") is a theory of mind of the Berlin School. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that the human mind considers objects in their entirety before, or in parallel with, perception of their individual parts; suggesting the whole is other than the sum of its parts. In the domain of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli. Origins Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (Contributions to the Analysis of Sensations, 1886), in formulating their very similar concepts of gestalt and figural moment, respectively. These laws took several forms, such as the grouping of similar, or proximate, objects together, within this global process. Gestalt therapy Invariance
Interpersonal attraction Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. Interpersonal attraction, the process, is distinct from perceptions of physical attractiveness which involves views of what is and is not considered beautiful or attractive. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction is related to how much we like, dislike, or hate someone. It can be viewed as a force acting between two people that tends to draw them together and resist their separation. Measurement Any given interaction is characterized by a certain level of intensity, which is conveyed by individual and interpersonal behavior, including the more subtle nonverbal behavioral information of interpersonal attraction. Causes Propinquity effect Mere exposure/exposure effect Similarity attraction effect The lookalike effect plays an important role called self-affirmation.
Rubenfeld Synergy Method Nucleic acid double helix In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA. The double helical structure of a nucleic acid complex arises as a consequence of its secondary structure, and is a fundamental component in determining its tertiary structure. The term entered popular culture with the publication in 1968 of The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, by James Watson. The DNA double helix polymer of nucleic acids, held together by nucleotides which base pair together. In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure, the double helix is right-handed with about 10–10.5 nucleotides per turn. The double helix structure of DNA contains a major groove and minor groove, the major groove being wider than the minor groove. Given the difference in widths of the major groove and minor groove, many proteins which bind to DNA do so through the wider major groove. History
Unergi Body-Psychotherapy with Ute Arnold K-line (artificial intelligence) A K-line, or Knowledge-line, is a mental agent which represents an association of a group of other mental agents found active when a subject solves a certain problem or formulates a new idea. These were first described in Marvin Minsky's essay K-lines: A Theory of Memory, published in 1980 in the journal Cognitive Science: When you “get an idea,” or “solve a problem” […] you create what we shall call a K-line. […]…When that K-line is later “activated”, it reactivates […] mental agencies, creating a partial mental state “resembling the original.” "Whenever you 'get a good idea', solve a problem, or have a memorable experience, you activate a K-line to 'represent' it. Minsky, Marvin; The Society of Mind ISBN 0-671-65713-5 March 15, 1998.Minsky, Marvin; Papert, Seymour; Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry ISBN 0-262-63111-3 December 28, 1987. Jump up ^ Minsky's "K-lines: A Theory of Memory
Total Clarity Counseling Cindy Foss Body Psychotherapist, Reiki Master Clinical Member of the United States Association of Body Psychotherapy Co-Founder of The Suppers Programs Body Psychotherapist "In my own practice, I love the experience of facilitating and witnessing others gain self-awareness and self-empowerment as they move through the process of making distinctions and deepening their connections with their mental, emotional, physical and spiritual selves." ---Cindy Foss “The Clinical membership is for those who are practicing body psychotherapists and have the following qualifications: […] certification from a recognized body psychotherapy training program and training in formal principles of psychotherapy.” “[…] The training in and experiencing of a specific body psychotherapy modality or method is one of the most important criterion according to many body psychotherapists.” The intent of this training was to learn from the inside out, incorporating the body with the here-and-now experience.
Functional fixedness Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used. The concept of functional fixedness originated in Gestalt Psychology, a movement in psychology that emphasizes holistic processing. Karl Duncker defined functional fixedness as being a "mental block against using an object in a new way that is required to solve a problem." This "block" limits the ability of an individual to use components given to them to complete a task, as they cannot move past the original purpose of those components. For example, if someone needs a paperweight, but they only have a hammer, they may not see how the hammer can be used as a paperweight. When tested, 5-year-old children show no signs of functional fixedness. Examples in research Experimental paradigms typically involve solving problems in novel situations in which the subject has the use of a familiar object in an unfamiliar context. Candle box Two-cord problem