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Etymology: Languages that have contributed to English vocabulary over time.

Etymology: Languages that have contributed to English vocabulary over time.
In Borrowed Words: A History of Loanwords in English, I examine how words borrowed from different languages have influenced English throughout its history. The above feature summarizes some of the main data from the book, focusing on the 14 sources that have given the most words to English, as reflected by the new and revised entries in the Oxford English Dictionary. Using the date buttons at the top of the graphic, you can compare the impact that different languages have made on English over time. In the "per period" view, you can see the proportions of words coming into English from each source in 50-year slices from 1150 up to the present day. If you switch to the "cumulative" view, then you can see how the total number of loanwords from each language has built up over time. The data lying behind this graphic reflects some of the biggest changes in the history of English. The elephant in the room, however, is how Latin and French dominate the picture in just about every period. Related:  Lexical ChangeThe Evolution of the English LanguageDICOS, EXERCICES, LANGUE.

Why Americans Call Soccer 'Soccer' How different country refer to the game of soccer. The shades of pink are variations and literal translations of "football," blues are "soccer," and greens are other etymologies. ( reddripper/reddit ) New Zealand's largest newspaper is deeply conflicted. We in the U.S., of course, would disagree. The story begins, like many good stories do, in a pub. But that wasn't where the controversy ended. "From this point onwards the two versions of football were distinguished by reference to their longer titles, Rugby Football and Association Football (named after the Football Association)," Szymanski writes. Both sports fragmented yet again as they spread around the world. In support of this theory, Szymanski cites a 1905 letter to the editor of The New York Times from Francis Tabor of New York, who warned of the spreading "heresy" of the word "socker": If the word "soccer" originated in England, why did it fall into disuse there and become dominant in the States? Football. Via Business Insider

Language Timeline The English language is a vast flea market of words, handed down, borrowed or created over more than 2000 years. And it is still expanding, changing and trading. Our language is not purely English at all - it is a ragbag of diverse words that have come to our island from all around the world. View the chart below to get an overview of some of the many chapters in the history of the English language. Celts 500BC-43BC Romans 43BC-c.450AD Anglo Saxons 449AD St Augustine 597 AD Vikings 789AD Normans 1066 100 Years War 1337-1450s Renaissance 1476-1650 1700s Industrial Revolution 1760-1800s 1900s - Present Day References: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal Words in Time by Geoffrey Hughes

Latin Proficiency Test To start this Latin test over, press the Reset button. Part I: Latin GrammarSelect the best answer. 1. _____ bene dictum est ab ûllô meum est. 2. Dulce et decôrum est prô patriâ _____. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. _____ argentum est aurô, virtûtibus aurum. 9. _____ mentem populus. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Part II: Latin GrammarIn each Latin sentence, select the one underlined word or phrase that is incorrect. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Part III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. _____ antîquîs rês stat Rômâna. 8. 9. 10. Part IV. Aut amat aut odit mulier: nihil est tertium. 1. 2. Thaïs habet nigrôs, niveôs Laecânia dentês.Quae ratiô est? 3. 4. Aut prôdesse volunt aut dêlectâre poetae aut simul et iûcunda et idônea dîcere vîtae. 5. 6. 7. Ante quam dê rê pûblicâ, patrês cônscrîptî, dîcam ea quae dîcenda hôc tempore arbitror, expônam vôbîs breviter cônsilium et profectiônis et reversiônis meae. 8. 9. 10. To start this Latin test over, press the Reset button.

Do you speak Uglish? How English has evolved in Uganda Please don’t dirten my shirt with your muddy hands. Stop cowardising and go and see that girl. Don’t just beep her again, bench her. Typos? Some will be immediately obvious to English speakers: dirten, meaning to make dirty; cowardising, to behave like a coward. Others offer small insights into youth culture: beep – meaning to ring someone but to hang up quickly before the person answers. Now, Bernard Sabiti, a Ugandan cultural commentator has recorded these colloquialisms in a new book which attempts to unlock what he calls “one of the funniest and strangest English varieties in the world”. Working as a consultant for international NGOs, Sabiti kept being asked “what kind of English do Ugandans speak?” The result? Sabiti says the rise of Uglish directly correlates with a fall in the standards in education. Though not exclusive to the younger generation, the majority of words chronicled in his book are influenced by youth culture. But this is not a linguistic phenomena unique to Uganda.

How authors from Dickens to Dr Seuss invented the words we use every day Butterfingers Charles Dickens used the term in his 1836 The Pickwick Papers (more properly called The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club): "At every bad attempt at a catch, and every failure to stop the ball, he launched his personal displeasure at the head of the devoted individual in such denunciations as 'Ah, ah!—stupid'—'Now, butter-fingers'—'Muff'— 'Humbug'—and so forth." Chintzy Originally this word meant to be decorated or covered with chintz, a calico print from India, or suggestive of a pattern in chintz. Chortle Blend of "chuckle" and "snort", created by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass: "'O frabjous day! Cojones Testicles in the allegorical sense, representing courage and tenacity. Debunk A word created by the novelist, biographer and former advertising copywriter William E Woodward for the process of exposing false claims. Doormat As a metaphor applied to a person upon whom other people "wipe their boots". Eyesore Norman Mailer: identified factoids way back in 1973.

History of English The figure below shows the timeline of the history of the English language. The earliest known residents of the British Isles were the Celts, who spoke Celtic languages—a separate branch of the Indo-European language family tree. Over the centuries the British Isles were invaded and conquered by various peoples, who brought their languages and customs with them as they settled in their new lives. There is now very little Celtic influence left in English. The earliest time when we can say that English was spoken was in the 5th century CE (Common Era—a politically correct term used to replace AD). In case you hadn’t made the connection, “England” ← “Engla Land” ← “Angle Land” (Land of the Angles, a people of northern old Germany). Here are some links for further reading on the history of English, in no particular order: If you need any more references, try a Yahoo! Copyright © 2003–2007 Daniel M.

SIX CENTS PAGES DU GAFFIOT VRAIMENT NUMÉRISÉES - [LATIN, GREC, JUXTA] Voici le résultat imprimé de la véritable numérisation des pages 1100 à 1702 de l’édition de 1935 du dictionnaire Latin-Français de Félix Gaffiot. Il s’agit de la première ré-édition non commerciale d’un nombre de pages conséquent du célèbre dictionnaire ! Les pages 645 à 1099 sont en cours de numérisation ainsi que les lettres C, D et E. Pour aider à la réalisation de cet énorme travail, faites un don (voir ci-dessous) pour l’imprimante, le papier, l’encre, ou bien proposez votre aide pour corriger des épreuves à l’adresse numerisation.gaffiot at hotmail.fr. Soutenez le site et la numérisation du Gaffiot à l’aide de paypal pour l’adresse marcel.xenophon (arobase) free.fr [facile !] © Gérard Gréco 2013-2014 --- Tous droits réservés. En particulier, la diffusion même électronique de ce document est interdite. Le document est protégé par un mot de passe : djebel

25 maps that explain the English language English is the language of Shakespeare and the language of Chaucer. It’s spoken in dozens of countries around the world, from the United States to a tiny island named Tristan da Cunha. It reflects the influences of centuries of international exchange, including conquest and colonization, from the Vikings through the 21st century. Here are 25 maps and charts that explain how English got started and evolved into the differently accented languages spoken today. The origins of English 1) Where English comes from English, like more than 400 other languages, is part of the Indo-European language family, sharing common roots not just with German and French but with Russian, Hindi, Punjabi, and Persian. 2) Where Indo-European languages are spoken in Europe today Saying that English is Indo-European, though, doesn’t really narrow it down much. 3) The Anglo-Saxon migration 4) The Danelaw The next source of English was Old Norse. 5)The Norman Conquest 6) The Great Vowel Shift The spread of English Credits

The Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013 is… It’s that time of the year again. With a fanfare and a drum roll, it’s time to announce the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year. The votes have been counted and verified and I can exclusively reveal that the winner is…. A picture can paint a thousand words The decision was unanimous this year, with little if any argument. When it started But what of the word itself? 2002 ABC Online (forum posting) 13 Sept. The term’s early origins seem to lie in social media and photosharing sites like Flickr and MySpace. unit= freq. Early evidence for the term show a variant spelling with a –y ending, but the –ie form is vastly more common today and has become the accepted spelling of the word. Other body parts are available Learn more about Word of the Year Take a closer look at ‘selfie’ with our infographicFind out how we choose the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the YearWatch our video: The Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year is… ‘selfie’

The Evolution of English The Evolution of English George Boeree The English language begins with the Anglo-Saxons. The Romans, who had controlled England for centuries, had withdrawn their troops and most of their colonists by the early 400s. Attacks from the Irish, the Picts from Scotland, the native Britons, and Anglo-Saxons from across the North Sea, plus the deteriorating situation in the rest of the Empire, made the retreat a strategic necessity. The language we now call English is actually a blend of many languages. Later, in the 800s, the Northmen (Vikings) came to England, mostly from Denmark, and settled in with the Anglo-Saxons from Yorkshire to Norfolk, an area that became known as the Danelaw. Last, William the Conqueror and his Norman supporters invaded England in 1066. English since then has been absorbing vocabulary from a huge number of sources. English's closest relatives can be found right across the water in Holland and Germany. From Brea en Griene Tsiis: Bread and Green Cheese by William Z.

200 Latin Roots to Improve Your Vocabulary Posted on 09. Apr, 2014 by Brittany Britanniae in Latin Language Whenever learning a new language, students are often overwhelmed by the fact that they must study the grammar and vocabulary. Vocabulary can be tough for anyone, but especially for those learning a new language for the first time or one like Latin which not spoken. However, the vocabulary in Latin should be easier since Latin is integrated into many modern languages: French, Italian, Spanish, English, etc. Here is a wonderful list of the most basic roots any Latin learner should know! Tags: Latin grammar, Latin language, Latin vocabulary Share this Post! About Brittany Britanniae Hello There!

The History of English - How New Words Are Created The drift of word meanings over time often arises, often but not always due to catachresis (the misuse, either deliberate or accidental, of words). By some estimates, over half of all words adopted into English from Latin have changed their meaning in some way over time, often drastically. For example, smart originally meant sharp, cutting or painful; handsome merely meant easily-handled (and was generally derogatory); bully originally meant darling or sweetheart; sad meant full, satiated or satisfied; and insult meant to boast, brag or triumph in an insolent way. A more modern example is the changing meaning of gay from merry to homosexual (and, in some circles in more recent years, to stupid or bad). Some words have changed their meanings many times. Some words have become much more specific than their original meanings. Some words came to mean almost the complete opposite of their original meanings.

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