Creating photons from a vacuum In the Chalmers scientists’ experiments, virtual photons bounce off a “mirror” that vibrates at a speed that is almost as high as the speed of light. The round mirror in the picture is a symbol, and under that is the quantum electronic component (referred to as a SQUID), which acts as a mirror. This makes real photons appear (in pairs) in vacuum. (credit: Philip Krantz, Chalmers) Scientists at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden have succeeded in creating photons from a vacuum. The experiment is based on one of the most counterintuitive but most important principles in quantum mechanics: that a vacuum is by not empty, but full of “virtual particles” that are continuously fluctuating in and out of existence. The static Casimir effect, proposed by Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir in 1948, involves two perfectly reflecting parallel mirrors that, when placed in a vacuum, will be attracted to one another. Ref.: C.
Design Patterns | Object Oriented Design PLoS ONE : accelerating the publication of peer-reviewed science Advertisement advanced search Browse Subject Areas: Variation in Butterfly Larval Acoustics as a Strategy to Infiltrate and Exploit Host Ant Colony Resources Marco Sala, Luca Pietro Casacci, [...], Francesca Barbero A Carapace-Like Bony ‘Body Tube’ in an Early Triassic Marine Reptile and the Onset of Marine Tetrapod Predation Xiao-hong Chen, Ryosuke Motani, [...], Olivier Rieppel Virtual Reconstruction and Prey Size Preference in the Mid Cenozoic Thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni... Marie R. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for... Anna R. Female Preference for Sympatric vs. Elizabeth Bastiaans, Mary Jane Bastiaans, [...], Barry Sinervo Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and... Michael C. A Century of Change in Kenya's Mammal Communities: Increased Richness and Decreased Uniqueness in Six Protected Areas Anikó B. Tobias Greitemeyer Obiageli Crystal Oluka, Shaofa Nie, Yi Sun
Thinkmap visualization software facilitates communication, learning, and discovery. Recursion Explained with the Flood Fill Algorithm (and Zombies and Cats) The source code of everything in this article can be downloaded here: floodfill_src.zip Consider the Lazy Zombie This is a cat: This is a normal human: This is a normal human who has been turned into an ungodly, flesh-eating zombie of the undead: Zombies are lazy and will only bite things that are next to them. There is an interesting recursive principle here, because the humans that have turned into zombies will start to bite other humans that are next to them, which will make more zombies, who bite more adjacent humans, which will make more zombies, and so on and so on in a chain reaction: Zombies don’t bite cats though. So as long as there is a cat between the human and the lazy zombie, the human is safe: The same cannot be said of any humans who don’t have a cat between them and a zombie: So not only does this simple lazy-zombie principle cause a chain reaction of zombies, it also causes this chain reaction to stop when a cat is encountered. The Basics: Recursive Calls and Base Cases
Living Earth Simulator will simulate the entire world Described as a “knowledge collider,” and now with a pledge of one billion euros from the European Union, the Living Earth Simulator is a new big data and supercomputing project that will attempt to uncover the underlying sociological and psychological laws that underpin human civilization. In the same way that CERN’s Large Hadron Collider smashes together protons to see what happens, the Living Earth Simulator (LES) will gather knowledge from a Planetary Nervous System (PNS — yes, really) to try to predict societal fluctuations such as political unrest, economic bubbles, disease epidemics, and so on. The scale of the LES, when it’s complete, will be huge. It is hoped that supercomputing centers all over the world will chip in with CPU time, and data will be corralled from existing projects and a new Global Participatory Platform, which is basically open data on a worldwide scale. The timing of EU’s billion-euro grant is telling, too. Read more at FuturICT
Is Design Dead? For many that come briefly into contact with Extreme Programming, it seems that XP calls for the death of software design. Not just is much design activity ridiculed as "Big Up Front Design", but such design techniques as the UML, flexible frameworks, and even patterns are de-emphasized or downright ignored. In fact XP involves a lot of design, but does it in a different way than established software processes. XP has rejuvenated the notion of evolutionary design with practices that allow evolution to become a viable design strategy. It also provides new challenges and skills as designers need to learn how to do a simple design, how to use refactoring to keep a design clean, and how to use patterns in an evolutionary style. Extreme Programming (XP) challenges many of the common assumptions about software development. I find myself at the center of this argument. Well I'm not going to expect that I can leave you dangling on the hook of dramatic tension. Planned and Evolutionary Design
Agent-Based_Model comments on 97% of scientists agree that climate change is occurring. How many of them agree that we are accelerating the phenomenon and by how much? Workshop / Chrome Experiments Unfortunately, either your web browser or your graphics card doesn't support WebGL. We recommend you try it again with Google Chrome. API Design One of the development tasks I do most often is designing the API for a reusable component. The components are usually for iOS (though sometimes they’re for OS X), and are invariably GUI controls or views of some kind. I’ve designed literally dozens of component APIs over the years, including for clients like Apple, and I’ve learned quite a bit about the process. I periodically release open source components too, and the feedback I’ve had has helped me put together a set of guidelines for API design that I’d like to share with you. This is an important topic, whether you’re an open source contributor, or working as part of a team on a large app, or just creating your own software. Just like the first launch experience of an app, your API is part of the first impression that a developer will have with your code, and will have a huge impact on whether they use it or throw it away. APIs are UX for developers. Desirable qualities IntuitiveForgivingFrictionless The developer interface It’s fine.
Hints of New Physics Crop Up at LHC | Wired Science Preliminary findings from CERN’s Large Hadron Collider may have uncovered experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Data from the CMS experiment is showing significant excesses of particles known as leptons being created in triplets, a result that could be interpreted as evidence for a theory called supersymmetry. The findings, presented during a talk Oct. 19 at a conference dedicated to LHC searches for new physics, have piqued the interest of some members of the field. “This is clearly something to watch closely over the coming months,” physicist Matt Strassler wrote on his blog. The most familiar lepton is the humble electron, though other, more exotic particles such as muons and taus also fall in this category. Yet searching for triplets of leptons is a complex task. Processes other than supersymmetry could also account for the triple lepton surplus. Image: CMS/CERN
D3.js - Data-Driven Documents