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OSI model

OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI Model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard of their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1. History[edit] Description of OSI layers[edit]

Related:  internet and packetsSoftware DevelopmentIT Science

Internet layer Internet-layer protocols use IP-based packets. The internet layer does not include the protocols that define communication between local (on-link) network nodes which fulfill the purpose of maintaining link states between the local nodes, such as the local network topology, and that usually use protocols that are based on the framing of packets specific to the link types. Such protocols belong to the link layer. A common design aspect in the internet layer is the robustness principle: "Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send"[1] as a misbehaving host can deny Internet service to many other users. Purpose[edit] Representational state transfer Representational State Transfer (REST) is a software architecture style consisting of guidelines and best practices for creating scalable web services.[1][2] REST is a coordinated set of constraints applied to the design of components in a distributed hypermedia system that can lead to a more performant and maintainable architecture.[3] REST has gained widespread acceptance across the Web[citation needed] as a simpler alternative to SOAP and WSDL-based Web services. RESTful systems typically, but not always, communicate over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the same HTTP verbs (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) used by web browsers to retrieve web pages and send data to remote servers.[3] The REST architectural style was developed by W3C Technical Architecture Group (TAG) in parallel with HTTP 1.1, based on the existing design of HTTP 1.0.[4] The World Wide Web represents the largest implementation of a system conforming to the REST architectural style.

SOCKS SOCKS performs at Layer 5 of the OSI model (the session layer, an intermediate layer between the presentation layer and the transport layer). History[edit] The protocol was originally developed/designed by David Koblas, a system administrator of MIPS Computer Systems. After MIPS was taken over by Silicon Graphics in 1992, Koblas presented a paper on SOCKS at that year's Usenix Security Symposium, making SOCKS publicly available.[1] The protocol was extended to version 4 by Ying-Da Lee of NEC.

Link aggregation Link Aggregation between a switch and a server Further umbrella terms used to describe the method include port trunking,[1]link bundling,[2] Ethernet/network/NIC bonding,[1] or NIC teaming. These umbrella terms not only encompass vendor-independent standards such as Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for Ethernet defined in IEEE 802.1ax or the previous IEEE 802.3ad, but also various proprietary solutions. Aggregation can be implemented at any of the lowest three layers of the OSI model. Examples of aggregation at layer 1 are power line (e.g.

Amazon S3 At its inception, Amazon charged end users US$0.15 per gigabyte-month, with additional charges for bandwidth used in sending and receiving data, and a per-request (get or put) charge.[4] On November 1, 2008, pricing moved to tiers where end users storing more than 50 terabytes receive discounted pricing.[5] Amazon says that S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that uses to run its own global e-commerce network.[6] Amazon S3 is reported to store more than 2 trillion objects as of April 2013[update].[7] This is up from 102 billion objects as of March 2010[update],[8] 64 billion objects in August 2009,[9] 52 billion in March 2009,[10] 29 billion in October 2008,[5] 14 billion in January 2008, and 10 billion in October 2007.[11] S3 uses include web hosting, image hosting, and storage for backup systems. S3 guarantees 99.9% monthly uptime,[12] i.e. not more than 43 minutes of downtime per month.[13] Design[edit]

Link layer Despite the different semantics of layering in TCP/IP and OSI, the link layer is sometimes described as a combination of the data link layer (layer 2) and the physical layer (layer 1) in the OSI model. However, the layers of TCP/IP are descriptions of operating scopes (application, host-to-host, network, link) and not detailed prescriptions of operating procedures, data semantics, or networking technologies. RFC 1122 exemplifies that local area network protocols such as Ethernet and IEEE 802, and framing protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) belong to the link layer. Definition in standards and textbooks[edit]

Stamplay Is IFTTT For Back-End Development If you are a front-end developer, setting up signup forms and integrations with popular APIs can be very painful. Stamplay wants to make back-end development as easy as playing with Lego bricks. The best analogy would be to think of it as an IFTTT for developers. Trend Micro Trend Micro Inc. (TYO: 4704) (Japanese: トレンドマイクロ株式会社 Torendo Maikuro Kabushiki-Gaisha; Chinese: 趨勢科技) is a Japanese security software company. It is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan and markets Trend Micro Internet Security, Trend Micro Worry-Free Business Security, OfficeScan, and other related security products and services. Eva Chen has been CEO for the company since 2005 succeeding Steve Chang, who is now Chairman. Trend Micro competes in the antivirus industry against Avira, BitDefender, BullGuard, F-Secure, Frisk, Kaspersky, McAfee, Panda Security, Sophos, Symantec, among others. Trend Micro is also a certificate authority and member of the CA/Browser Forum, the industry standards group founded by Melih Abdulhayoğlu of the Comodo Group,.[2]

Network bridge vs. NIC teaming ? Quote: That isn't quite right. Bridging is usually used when you wish to combine two network connections, but not necessarily have them doing the same task (an example is if you want a VM to appear as a real machine on your network). You can bridge the VM's software NIC (if it has one) with a physical card giving it direct access to then LAN (rather than doing NAT) It does make the computer see them as 1, but they'll only have one connection to the LAN/Internet.

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