Egyptian pyramids A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BCE–2611 BCE) which was built during the third dynasty. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Historical development The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas. Abu Rawash
Ancient Egyptian creation myths The sun rises over the circular mound of creation as goddesses pour out the primeval waters around it Ancient Egyptian creation myths are the ancient Egyptian accounts of the creation of the world. The Pyramid Texts, tomb wall decorations and writings, dating back to the Old Kingdom (2780 – 2250 B.C.E) have given us most of our information regarding early Egyptian creation myths. These myths also form the earliest religious compilations in the world. The ancient Egyptians had many creator gods and associated legends. Thus the world or more specifically Egypt was created in diverse ways according to different parts of the country. Common elements Another common element of Egyptian cosmogonies is the familiar figure of the cosmic egg, a substitute for the primeval waters or the primeval mound. Cosmogonies Hermopolis Heliopolis Memphis The Memphite version of creation centered on Ptah, who was the patron god of craftsmen. Thebes References
La dualité égyptienne / site "Immortelle Égypte" Un peu d'histoire » L'Égypte pharaonique : Pharaons et Reines Plan de l'article La dualité : clef essentielle du système de pensée égyptien ¤ Tout est binaire » Sema-Taouy ou le pouvoir de Maât ¤ La dualité et l'union en images Nom féminin. Caractère de ce qui est double en soi ; coexistence de deux éléments différents. - Dualité de l'homme. Dualité de l'âme et du corps - Symbole très fort qui définit la conscience profonde de l'Égypte pharaonique. Haute et Basse Égypte, rive orientale et rive occidentale, vallée fertile et désert aride, ordre et chaos, jour et nuit, vie et mort, corps et âme… La dualité, la symétrie, les paires contraires ou complémentaires forment un concept dans lequel la civilisation semble baigner en permanence. (*) (**) Origines de la royauté | Le concept de Maât | Qui est Pharaon ? La dualité : clef essentielle du système de pensée égyptien Joan Fletcher, Le livre de la sagesse égyptienne, Éditions Gründ, Paris 2002 Tout est binaire 1. 2. 3. Notice documentaire 3.
History of ancient Egypt The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3200 BC, when Lower and Upper Egypt became a unified state, until the country fell under Greek rule in 332 BC. Chronology Note For alternative 'revisions' to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypt's history is split into several different periods according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. Predynastic Period (Prior to 3100 BC)Protodynastic Period (Approximately 3100–3000 BC)Early Dynastic Period (1st–2nd Dynasties)Old Kingdom (3rd–6th Dynasties)First Intermediate Period (7th–11th Dynasties)Middle Kingdom (12th–13th Dynasties)Second Intermediate Period (14th–17th Dynasties)New Kingdom (18th–20th Dynasties)Third Intermediate Period (21st–25th Dynasties) (also known as the Libyan Period)Late Period (26th–31st Dynasties) Neolithic Egypt Neolithic period Dynastic Egypt
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations globally to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. History Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC) Predynastic period A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050 –2686 BC)
La symbolique des couleurs en Egypte ancienne Les graphies du mot « couleur » en Egypte ancienne Comme souvent dans l’écriture hiéroglyphique, plusieurs graphies du même mot existent : iwn est la graphie principale, elle signifie à la fois « couleur » et « nature » (à noter que la graphie est composée des hiéroglyphes « roseau », « cheveu » et d’une ondulation rapide, celle du pinceau ?) , ou irtyw signifie à la fois « couleur » en nom et « bleu » en adjectif. Une troisième graphie, plus incertaine, drwy, signifierait à la fois à la fois « couleur », « peinture » et « mur ». De la couleur à la nature des choses iwn signifie à la fois le teint, la couleur, la nature ou la qualité d’une chose, c’est-à-dire à la fois sa forme et son essence, contrairement aux dichotomies grecques (le fond opposé à la forme, l’apparence à l’essence…). La fabrication de la couleur Dès la IVe dynastie (2613-2494 av. Généralement, les Egyptiens utilisaient des minéraux disponibles sur leur territoire. Noir km / kem Blanc hdj/hedjet Jaune hnt / khenet Bleu irtyu Vert Gris
The Relationship Between The Great Pyramid and the Book of the D The Relationship Between The Great Pyramid and The Book of the Dead It has been proposed that the Great Pyramid of Giza is the Egyptian “Book of the Dead” symbolized in stone. “The intimate connection between the secret doctrine of Egypt’s most venerated books, and the secret significance of her most venerable monument, seems impossible to separate, and each form illustrates and interpenetrates the other. Marsham Adams proposed that the unique system of passages and chambers (particularly the Grand Gallery, obviously unnecessary in a tomb) has an allegorical significance only explained by reference to the Egyptian “Book of the Dead”. “The Pyramids and the Book of the Dead reproduce the same original, the one in words, the other in stone.” Can we find meaning and answers to the mystery of the Great Pyramid by studying the Egyptian “Book of the Dead” and its relationship to the Great Pyramid? What is the Egyptian “Book of the Dead”? “This is a composition of exceedingly great mystery.
Salem Witch Museum - Salem, Massachusetts In January of 1692, the daughter and niece of Reverend Samuel Parris of Salem Village became ill. When they failed to improve, the village doctor, William Griggs, was called in. His diagnosis of bewitchment put into motion the forces that would ultimately result in the death by hanging of nineteen men and women. In addition, one man was crushed to death; seven others died in prison, and the lives of many were irrevocably changed. To understand the events of the Salem witch trials, it is necessary to examine the times in which accusations of witchcraft occurred. There were the ordinary stresses of 17th-century life in Massachusetts Bay Colony. In June of 1692, the special Court of Oyer (to hear) and Terminer (to decide) sat in Salem to hear the cases of witchcraft. As years passed, apologies were offered, and restitution was made to the victims' families. Education Department - email@example.com
The Mayan Calendar - The World Will Not End Steep Uphill Climb to 2012: Messages from the Mayan Milieu ©- Copyright 2002 by Steven McFadden In early Autumn 2002, Carlos Barrios journeyed North from his home in Guatemala to the Eastern edge of the Four Corners. In Santa Fe, NM, at the tail of the Rocky Mountain spine, Mr. Barrios spoke in a knowledgeable manner about the Mayan tradition and the fabled Mayan calendars. The Mayan calendars are an object of intense interest for many thousands of people right now, because they focus upon the watershed date of Dec. 21, 2012. Everything changes by then, it is said. With a cultural heritage including thousands of pyramids and temples, and a calendar that has proven itself to be astronomically accurate over millions of years, the Maya tradition is widely considered to be a mystic key to the soul of Turtle Island (North America). Mayan Cholq'ij - an image of the Mayan Tzolkin calendar used on the Altiplano.
Maya mythology Maya mythology is part of Mesoamerican mythology and comprises all of the Maya tales in which personified forces of nature, deities, and the heroes interacting with these play the main roles. Other parts of Maya oral tradition (such as animal tales and many moralising stories) do not properly belong to the domain of mythology, but rather to legend and folk tale. Sources The oldest written myths date from the 16th century and are found in historical sources from the Guatemalan Highlands The most important of these documents is the Popol Vuh or 'Book of the Council'which contains Quichean creation stories and some of the adventures of the Hero Twins, Hunahpu and Xbalanque Yucatán is an equally important region. In the 19th and 20th centuries, anthropologists and local folklorists have committed many stories to paper. Main gods Important mythical themes Creation and end of the world Creation of mankind Actions of the heroes: Arranging the world Notes