Systematic network lesioning reveals the core white matter scaffold of the human brain Introduction Brain lesions due to conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS) can have focal, region-specific consequences as well as diffuse effects upon cortical circuitry (Van Horn et al., 2012). For this reason, the ability to quantify injury-related connectomic changes in a systematic manner is critical for the evaluation of injury severity and for the personalization of treatment after neurotrauma. In both health and disease, network theory can provide essential insight into the structural properties of brain connectivity (Sporns, 2011), particularly by providing quantitative measures of lesion impact upon neural structure and function, with possible relevance to the prediction of clinical outcome variables and to the task of designing patient-tailored rehabilitation protocols (Irimia et al., 2012a,b). Materials and Methods Subjects and Data Acquisition Image Processing Connectivity Calculation Connectogram Design Figure 1. Network Measures
First 3D Map of the Brain’s Connections We knew anatomy could be gorgeous, but this is beyond anything else we’ve ever seen, and it’s guaranteed to be something you haven’t seen, being the first 3D image of a brain’s connections. Van Wedeen, a Harvard radiology professor, is awestruck: “We’ve never really seen the brain – it’s been hiding in plain sight.” Conventional scanning has offered us a crude glimpse, but scientists such as Wedeen aim to produce the first ever three-dimensional map of all its neurons. They call this circuit diagram the “connectome”, and it could help us better understand everything from imagination and language to the miswirings that cause mental illness. But with 100 billion neurons hooked together by more connections than there are stars in the MilkyWay, the brain is a challenge that represents petabyte-level data. Photographed above is the 3D image of an owl-monkey’s brain. Link [via]
A gene that stimulates growth of new brain cells in adults Increased length of the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG) for overexpressed TLX gene (in Tg, or transgenic mice) vs. control group (WT, or wild type) (credit: Kiyohito Mura et al./PNAS) Over-expressing a specific gene could prompt growth in adults of new neurons in the hippocampus, where learning and memory are regulated, City of Hope researchers have found. The study, which used an animal model, found that over-expression of the TLX gene resulted in smart, faster learners that retained information better and longer. Understanding the link between this gene and the growth of new neurons — or neurogenesis — is an important step in developing therapies to address impaired learning and memory associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The new research was published June 9 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Researchers found that over-expression of the gene was actually associated with a physically larger brain, as well as the ability to learn a task quickly.
Over 100 Incredible Infographic Tools and Resources (Categorized) This post is #6 in DailyTekk’s famous Top 100 series which explores the best startups, gadgets, apps, websites and services in a given category. Total items listed: 112. Time to compile: 8+ hours. Update: Be sure to check out our latest post on infographics: Infographics Are Everywhere – Here’s How to Make Yours Go Viral. I love a good infographic! There’s more to this article!
The Spiritual Eye: How to Decalcify & Activate Your Pineal Gland Christina Sarich, ContributorWaking Times This article will presume you have a basic knowledge of the pineal gland, an important endocrine gland that is said to be the seat of enlightenment. If you need to back up a little and inform yourself more about what the pineal gland is, you can start here before reading further. Activating your pineal gland, or spiritual ‘eye’ and detoxing it are two different things. In essence, the detoxification allows you to remove the crystallized deposits, which keep the gland as a caged bird, or a princess jailed in her own ivory tower. In his book, and documentary The Spirit Molecule, Rick Strasssman talks about how the chemical DMT allows a deeper understanding of ‘reality’ as we know it. Stop the calcification of the gland by reducing halides. Enhancing the Inner Light There are many ways to enhance the inner light of the third eye, and to elicit higher concentrations of DMT. Inversions are great for other reasons, too. Yoga Nidra Khecarī Mudrā
Miniature bouncing tennis balls reveal cellular interiors I admit it, I love my job(s). I love doing science, and I love reporting science. In particular, I love it when my expectations are confounded, as they recently were in a paper I read. What I found were results that are still a bit preliminary. Randomness generates a map Imagine that you want to explore a house. As you track the average location of the tennis balls, you map out the walls, beds, curtains, doors, and windows (the tennis balls that exit the window never return, as is often the case in real life). It turns out that you can do the same thing in a cell. It sounds great, but, in practice, you would be waiting a very long time to get that image. The key to this technique, though, is determining the particle position as accurately as possible as a function of time. A quantum locator To understand how the researchers improved their position detector, we need to understand a little bit about light. This is where quantum mechanics gives us a good kicking.
About This page includes information about the aims and scope of BMC Bioinformatics, editorial policies, open access and article-processing charges, the peer review process and other information. For details of how to prepare and submit a manuscript through the online submission system, please see the instructions for authors. Scope BMC Bioinformatics is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of the development, testing and novel application of computational and statistical methods for the modeling and analysis of all kinds of biological data, as well as other areas of computational biology. BMC Bioinformatics is part of the BMC series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. BMC series - open, inclusive and trusted. Editorial team Executive Editor Irene Pala Editorial Board Manager Paul Lambert Senior Managing Editor Diana Marshall Open access Indexing services e.g.
Repetition Doesn’t Work: Better Ways to Train Your Memory How the massive influx of tourists impacted prostitution, which is technically legal, in the South American country. In 1920, to prepare for King Albert of Belgium’s visit to Rio de Janeiro, local officials engaged in an extralegal campaign to improve the city’s “moral hygiene.” Police rounded up all the lower-class prostitutes, cuffed them, and relocated them to the “Mangue”—or downtown marsh district, thereby forming Rio’s very first red light district. Further cleansing occurred in 1967, when police erected walls around the prostitution zone to shield it from the delicate gaze of Queen Elizabeth II in advance of her state visit the following year. The police crackdown on crime also extended to prostitution in order to, as the district attorney stated, “contribute to changing [Rio’s] soiled image.” Thousands of sex websites were reportedly targeted, and Brazil’s leftist president, Dilma Rousseff, took to Twitter to denounce “sexual tourism” during the World Cup.
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