Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples, propaganda in its original sense was neutral and could refer to uses that were generally positive, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement. Etymology From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Types Defining propaganda has always been a problem. According to historian Zbyněk Zeman, propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. US Office for War Information poster implying that working less helped the Axis powers.
Related: Crowd Manipulation
Social influenceMorton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence), and our need to be liked (normative social influence). Informational influence (or social proof) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. In terms of Kelman's typology, normative influence leads to public compliance, whereas informational influence leads to private acceptance. Types Social Influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Kelman's varieties 1) Compliance 2) Identification 3) Internalization Conformity Minority influence Reactance
PropagandaPropaganda tager mange former. Her en nålepude fra 1941 fremstillet i USA. Propaganda er et systematisk forsøg på at påvirke folk ved at kommunikere bestemte holdninger, vinkler og perspektiver. Det bruges især om religiøse og politiske ideer. Ordet kommer af latin propagare = udplante, udvide, "det, der bør udbredes". I 1622 grundlagde pave Gregor XV "la Congregatio de Propaganda Fide" Den gejstlige orden for udbredelse af den katolske tro. Propaganda bruges, når et budskab bliver præsenteret som den hele og fulde sandhed, mens det i virkeligheden har en skjult dagsorden. Ordet propaganda bruges om "sandheden" i politiske sammenhænge. Propaganda kan bruge stærke følelser som angst, had, glæde og stolthed. Sovjetunionens Josef Stalin brugte propaganda på befolkningen der og på de lande som Sovjetunionen havde kontrol over. Propaganda bruges til at sænke fjendens moral eller få den til at overgive sig efter at have læst flyveblade. Propaganda er ikke et nyt fænomen.
Gatekeeping (communication)Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication. The academic theory of gatekeeping is found in multiple fields of study, including communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology. It was originally focused on the mass media with its few-to-many dynamic but now gatekeeping theory also addresses face-to-face communication and the many-to-many dynamic inherent in the Internet. The theory was first instituted by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure — from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to include in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered, and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. Individuals can also act as gatekeepers, deciding what information to include in an e-mail or in a blog, for example.
The Protocols of the Elders of ZionThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic hoax purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. It was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. Henry Ford funded printing of 500,000 copies that were distributed throughout the US in the 1920s. Adolf Hitler was a major proponent. It was studied, as if factual, in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power in 1933, despite having been exposed as fraudulent by The Times of London in 1921. The historian Norman Cohn suggested that Hitler used the Protocols as his primary justification for initiating the Holocaust—his "warrant for genocide". Creation The Protocols is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. Sources employed Literary forgery Maurice Joly The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's Dialogues 1–17. Hermann Goedsche
Front organizationA front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations. Front organizations can act for the parent group without the actions being attributed to the parent group. Intelligence agencies Intelligence agencies use front organizations to provide "cover", plausible occupations and means of income, for their covert agents. These may include legitimate organizations, such as charity, religious or journalism organizations; or "brass plate firms" which exist solely to provide a plausible background story, occupation, and means of income. Organized crime Many organized crime operations have substantial legitimate businesses, such as licensed gambling houses, building construction companies, trash hauling services, or dock loading enterprises. Religion Scientology Politics Pro-Israel lobbying fronts
Orwellian"Orwellian" is an adjective describing the situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. It denotes an attitude and a brutal policy of draconian control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth, and manipulation of the past, including the "unperson" – a person whose past existence is expunged from the public record and memory, practised by modern repressive governments. Often, this includes the circumstances depicted in his novels, particularly Nineteen Eighty-Four.[verification needed] Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs. Orwell's ideas about personal freedom and state authority developed when he was a British colonial administrator in Burma. This often brought him into conflict with literary peers such as W.H. Meanings Big Brother Political language See also
Impression managementIn sociology and social psychology, impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction (Piwinger & Ebert 2001, pp. 1–2). It is usually used synonymously with self-presentation, in which a person tries to influence the perception of their image. The notion of impression management also refers to practices in professional communication and public relations, where the term is used to describe the process of formation of a company's or organization's public image. Self-presentation While impression management and self-presentation are often used interchangeably, some authors have argued that they are not the same. Motives and strategies Self-presentation is expressive. People adopt many different impression management strategies. Theory Basic factors Erving Goffman
Anti-Net Neutrality Propaganda Reaches Insane Levels With Bad Actors And Porn ParodyThere's been plenty of propaganda concerning the net neutrality fight, but with FCC boss Tom Wheeler finally making it official that the FCC is going to move to reclassify broadband, it's kicked into high gear of ridiculousness. An astroturfing front group that's anti-net neutrality is trying to make a "viral" anti-net neutrality video, and it did so in the most bizarre way, by making an attempted parody porno video, based on the classic "cable guy" porno trope. The video is sorta SFW, since the "joke" is that "the government" stops the homeowner from getting naked with the cable guy, but people at work might still question what the hell you're watching: The video makes no sense at all. There's also the second interview, with the woman who shows up pre-shocked, and proceeds to "complain" about the totally fake "new taxes" that are not actually going to show up because of Title II reclassification. Of course, the video doesn't show that at all. This is, of course, complete hogwash.