Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples, propaganda in its original sense was neutral and could refer to uses that were generally positive, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement. Etymology From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Types Defining propaganda has always been a problem. According to historian Zbyněk Zeman, propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. US Office for War Information poster implying that working less helped the Axis powers.
Related: Crowd Manipulation
Inverted pyramidA comprehensive take on the inverted pyramid in journalism, which explains the kind of prioritizing a journalist should engage in. The inverted pyramid is a metaphor used by journalists and other writers to illustrate how information should be prioritized and structured in a text (e.g., a news report). It is a common method for writing news stories (and has adaptability to other kinds of texts, e.g., blogs and editorial columns). It is widely taught to journalism students, and is systematically used in Anglophone media. Description The "inverted" or upside-down "pyramid" can be thought of as a simple triangle with one side drawn horizontally at the top and the body pointing down. Purpose Other styles are also used in news writing, including the "anecdotal lead", which begins the story with an eye-catching tale or anecdote rather than the central facts; and the Q&A, or question-and-answer format. This format is valued for two reasons. History See also References
Here Be Dragons: An Introduction to Critical ThinkingSocial influenceMorton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence), and our need to be liked (normative social influence). Informational influence (or social proof) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. In terms of Kelman's typology, normative influence leads to public compliance, whereas informational influence leads to private acceptance. Types Social Influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Kelman's varieties 1) Compliance 2) Identification 3) Internalization Conformity Minority influence Reactance
PropagandaPropaganda tager mange former. Her en nålepude fra 1941 fremstillet i USA. Propaganda er et systematisk forsøg på at påvirke folk ved at kommunikere bestemte holdninger, vinkler og perspektiver. Det bruges især om religiøse og politiske ideer. Ordet kommer af latin propagare = udplante, udvide, "det, der bør udbredes". I 1622 grundlagde pave Gregor XV "la Congregatio de Propaganda Fide" Den gejstlige orden for udbredelse af den katolske tro. Propaganda bruges, når et budskab bliver præsenteret som den hele og fulde sandhed, mens det i virkeligheden har en skjult dagsorden. Ordet propaganda bruges om "sandheden" i politiske sammenhænge. Propaganda kan bruge stærke følelser som angst, had, glæde og stolthed. Sovjetunionens Josef Stalin brugte propaganda på befolkningen der og på de lande som Sovjetunionen havde kontrol over. Propaganda bruges til at sænke fjendens moral eller få den til at overgive sig efter at have læst flyveblade. Propaganda er ikke et nyt fænomen.
Nellie BlyEarly years Nellie Bly working in a factory producing boxes At birth she was named Elizabeth Jane Cochran. In 1880, Cochrane and her family moved to Pittsburgh. As a writer, Bly focused her early work for the Dispatch on the plight of working women, writing a series of investigative articles on women who were factory workers, but editorial pressure pushed her to the so-called "women's pages" to cover fashion, society, and gardening, the usual role for women journalists of the day. Asylum exposé Bly being examined by a psychiatrist Burdened again with theater and arts reporting, Bly left the Pittsburgh Dispatch in 1887 for New York City. After a night of practicing deranged expressions in front of a mirror, she checked into a boardinghouse. Committed to the asylum, Bly experienced its conditions firsthand. What, excepting torture, would produce insanity quicker than this treatment? …My teeth chattered and my limbs were …numb with cold. Around the world Later years
Skeptoid: Critical Analysis PodcastGatekeeping (communication)Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication. The academic theory of gatekeeping is found in multiple fields of study, including communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology. It was originally focused on the mass media with its few-to-many dynamic but now gatekeeping theory also addresses face-to-face communication and the many-to-many dynamic inherent in the Internet. The theory was first instituted by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure — from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to include in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered, and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. Individuals can also act as gatekeepers, deciding what information to include in an e-mail or in a blog, for example.
The Protocols of the Elders of ZionThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic hoax purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. It was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. Henry Ford funded printing of 500,000 copies that were distributed throughout the US in the 1920s. Adolf Hitler was a major proponent. It was studied, as if factual, in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power in 1933, despite having been exposed as fraudulent by The Times of London in 1921. The historian Norman Cohn suggested that Hitler used the Protocols as his primary justification for initiating the Holocaust—his "warrant for genocide". Creation The Protocols is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. Sources employed Literary forgery Maurice Joly The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's Dialogues 1–17. Hermann Goedsche