Experiment: Growing Bismuth Crystals In this experiment, I'll be growing beautiful iridescent crystals out of pure bismuth metal. These "hopper crystals," as they are known, form completely naturally as molten bismuth cools and solidifies. They aren't found in nature, however, because of the specific circumstances required to make them. People make these in labs and sell some pretty amazing samples on eBay. This experiment is very simple to do. My melting setup was a small pot on the stove top, with a smaller steel cup inside that actually contained the metal to melt. This is my method for suspending a seed crystal in the metal. After the bismuth was fully melted, I poured it into a new, clean container and suspended my seed crystal so it would hang just below the surface of the metal. The cup on the left holds the liquid I poured off, and the one on the right contains my crystals. Top and bottom views of my solidified bismuth after knocking it out of the container. The final product - my bismuth metal crystals.
Science of Seasoning: Salt Sculpture Activity When you add salt to water, the crystals dissolve and the salt goes into solution. But you can’t dissolve an infinite amount of salt into a fixed volume of water. When as much salt has been dissolved into a solution as possible, the solution is said to be saturated. The saturation point is different at different temperatures. The higher the temperature, the more salt that can be held in solution. Supersaturation is an unstable state. "This Is Really a Thing" Unique finds, geeky gadgets and great gift ideas 30 Years After Chernobyl’s Meltdown, Gripping Photos Expose the Human Fallout | Raw File On April 26, 1986, operators in this control room of reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant committed a fatal series of errors during a safety test, triggering a reactor meltdown that resulted in the world's largest nuclear accident to date. [Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine 2011] Gerd Ludwig/INSTITUTE On April 26, 1986, operators in this control room of reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant committed a fatal series of errors during a safety-test, triggering a reactor meltdown that resulted in the world's largest nuclear accident to date. [Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine 2011] Workers wearing plastic suits and respirators for protection pause briefly on their way to drill holes for support rods inside the shaky concrete sarcophagus, a structure hastily built after the explosion to isolate the radioactive rubble of Reactor #4. Victor Gaydak, 70, a liquidator of the Chernobyl accident, watches news of the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan.
Bismuth Crystal at Educational Innovations These beautiful man-made crystals float to the top of a super-cooled bismuth melt and form within minutes. Bismuth is one of the few materials that have a greater density as a liquid than as a solid. Only a few other materials such as water, gallium and germanium, exhibit this property. The trigonal crystal structure accounts for the cubic formations. The iridescent rainbows of colors observed are caused by light scattering off thin layers of bismuth oxide formed when the surface of the hot bismuth reacts with the air. Specimens range from 12 to 17g with a density of 9.81 g/cc. Download the pdf of this lesson! Bismuth is a very unusual and rare metal that is solid at room temperature. Bismuth crystals are man-made or man 'grown'. The iridescent coloring is due to a thin layer of bismuth oxide that forms on the surface of the crystal as it cools.
How do your crystals grow? Because one of the main bottlenecks in determining the structure of protein molecules is producing good isolated single crystals, improved crystallization techniques would be useful in a wide range of genomics and pharmaceutical research. Research reported in the Journal of Chemical Physics uses fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to investigate the processes at the surface of a growing crystal. By focusing a laser on the crystal surface and measuring the resulting fluorescence, FCS can resolve dimensions as small as a single wavelength of the light. "Another advantage of fluorescence is that it provides a high signal-to-noise ratio," says author Shinpei Tanaka of Hiroshima University in Japan. "We are able to measure very dilute solutions at the crystal interface." The researchers found that when single tetragonal crystals of egg-white lysozyme formed, there was no concentration gradient between the solution and the crystal surface.
Microwave signals turned into electrical power 11 November 2013Last updated at 10:18 ET Researchers have found a way to capture microwave signals and turn them into power An electrical current capable of charging a mobile phone has been created from microwave signals. A team from Duke University said the technology they had used had been as efficient as using solar panels. The device they created used metamaterials, which capture various forms of wave energy and convert them for other applications. In the future, satellite, sound or wi-fi signals could be "harvested", according to the US researchers. "We're showing... these materials can be useful for consumer applications," said engineering student Alexander Katko. Using fibreglass and copper conductors on a circuit board, the researchers converted microwaves into 7.3 volts of electricity. "We were aiming for the highest energy efficiency we could achieve," said team member Allen Hawkes. Metamaterials are artificial materials that display properties not usually found in nature.
This Scientific Breakthrough May Have Laid The Groundwork For Human Teleportation Dutch scientists have unlocked the secret to the sci-fi phenomenon of teleportation, successfully causing an atom to vanish and reappear nearly 10 feet away. The Irish Times reports that a team led by Professor Ronald Hanson of Delft University conducted a demonstration in which information encoded into sub-atomic particles was teleported between two points with 100 percent accuracy for the very first time. Hanson says that, if a particle can be teleported, there’s no reason to believe the same cannot be done for a human being. He explained, If you believe we are nothing more than a collection of atoms strung together in a particular way, then in principle it should be possible to teleport ourselves from one place to another. In practice it’s extremely unlikely, but to say it can never work is very dangerous. The technology used will be put towards creating a system of quantum computers that can process information at lightning speed compared even to today’s most advanced computers.
Science Buddies: "Ask an Expert" • View topic - Creating tin and bismuth crystals. - HELP ASAP! THANKS! My son melted the bismuth/tin, allowed it to cool, poured off excess liquid bismuth/tin and had hardened crystals that remained. He first used 30 grams, then 57 grams, 70 grams, and 102 grams. The definitions we have for the two crystals are as follows: Monoclinic: Three unequal axes. The a and c crystallographic axes are inclined toward each other at an oblique angle, and the b axis is perpendicular to a and c. The b crystallographic axis is called the ortho axis. Tetragonal: A simple cubic that is stretched along its c axis to form a rectangular prism. We just don't understand what this is saying and are worried if Brady states all the above and gets asked what it means, he will look bad to the judges. Thanks
The 15 Best Websites, According to Redditors Unraveling the ever-changing World Wide Web to find the very best sites can be a daunting and time consuming task. Or, you could just ask Reddit. That's what one Redditor did Thursday, posing to the rest of the community the question, "What is the best website other than Reddit?" Commenters sprang into action posting thousands of comment replies, naming sites that run the gamut from arcane to whimsical. Please note that the list may change as more people chime in with their opinions. 1. If you don't know what Wikipedia is by now, perhaps you should check the Wikipedia page for it. 2. Redditor "kinkyroach" compiled a diverse list of nifty sites and provided a short description for each one. 3. Don't call it a search engine. 4. This streaming media and DVD-by-mail website has revolutionized the entertainment industry. 5. This is one of the most popular sites on the Internet for pornography. 6. Check your assumptions at the door. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Kickstarter is the king of crowdfunding.
Discussion Board - Bismuth Crystals, etc. Bismuth Crystals, etc. I thought I might share my tinkerings with this beautiful element. Bi forms hopper crystals, which I’m sure we’ve all seen at museum gift shops at one time or another without realizing what they are. First, get some bismuth. Next, get a small crucible to melt your bismuth. Melt enough bismuth in your crucible to produce a roughly cylindrical melt and remove the heat source shortly after the charge finishes melting. At this point you have a melt of liquid bismuth that is ready to crystallize around any cool object it touches. At this point, you should quickly skim the layer of gray bismuth oxide off the top of the melt. While waiting for the crystal to grow (this usually takes around 20 seconds), make sure to slowly and gently shake the tweezers around to get a feel for the size of the crystal. Wait for the crystal to cool down and remove it from the tweezers. Another form of bismuth that is a sight to behold is plates.
Smartphone-Controlled Paper Airplane Soars on Kickstarter Designing the perfect paper airplane — the one that flies the farthest and the fastest — is about to get easier. Power Up 3.0, built by designer Shai Goitein, promises to give your basic paper model an upgrade, using a small attachable propeller and rudder for a little more speed and steering control. The most impressive part of this flight enthusiast's design is the Bluetooth connectivity, which allows you to control your paper airplane via your smartphone with an accompanying app. Tilting your phone to the left or right allows you to turn your airplane as it flies a whopping 60 yards. The app also includes a compass, controls for thrust and readouts for battery life and range. The project has soared past it's $50,000 goal, even topping its increased $150,000 goal, allowing Goitein's team to create both an iOS and Android version of the app. Have something to add to this story? Image: Power Up Toys