Color (American English) or colour (British English; see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects or materials based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates. Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science. Physics of color Perception
Related: 0013 Understand vibrations, wave motion, and the behavior of lig
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The Physics of Color - the Color Wheel and Color SpectrumThere are numerous webpages that describe these things in detail, so I will keep it short. Most of the physical properties of colors are things that you can do without knowing. Learning about this certainly won't hurt, but skipping over them shouldn't affect your ability to use colors in an effective way. Technically speaking, colors are the way our brain, by use of our eyes, interprets electromagnetic radiation of a wavelenght within the visible spectrum. Visible light lies between 400 and 700 nanometers. The different wavelengths are seen as different colors, as in the spectrum below. Traditionally the spectrum is divided into seven separate bands. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of over 750 nm is called infra-red, and radiation under 350 nm is ultra-violet. In color theory, we often talk about the color wheel.
LightnessThree hues in the Munsell color model. Each color differs in value from top to bottom in equal perception steps. The right column undergoes a dramatic change in perceived color. In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness. It is one of the color appearance parameters of any color appearance model. Various color models have an explicit term for this property. In subtractive color (i.e. paints) value changes can be achieved by adding black or white to the color. Relationship between lightness, value, and luminance Observe that the lightness is 50% for a luminance of around 18% relative to the reference white. Priest et al. provide a basic estimate of the Munsell value (with Y running from 0 to 1 in this case): Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd prepare a report for the Optical Society of America. Realizing this is quite close to the cube root, they simplify it to: where .
What Are Monsters?- Famous Monsters Explained HereWhat are Monsters? Dwelling around in dark places and corners, these famous monsters can be found under your bed, in your closet or behind closed bathroom doors. But most definitely, they are surely to be found living in your head. Creeping, lurking and lying in wait, their main motive is to scare anyone who may be crossing their path. But what are monsters actually? The word monster is derived from the Latin word "monstrum", which in literal terms means omen. It is a creature with an evil mind with structural defects or deformities physically, which inspires horror or disgust. Whether real or imaginary, these famous monsters are abnormal with deformed body parts which are frightening to look at. Some of these monsters have become real famous over time, because of their reputation for their fear factor capabilities and the eerie way of scaring people. Sometimes the monster can be a display of God’s anger, sometimes an omen of the future, or even a symbol of moral virtue or vice.
ColorIt is common practice to define pure colors in terms of the wavelengths of light as shown. This works well for spectral colors but it is found that many different combinations of light wavelengths can produce the same perception of color. This progression from left to right is from long wavelength to short wavelength, and from low frequency to high frequency light. The wavelengths are commonly expressed in nanometers (1 nm = 10-9 m). The visible spectrum is roughly from 700 nm (red end) to 400 nm (violet end). The inherently distinguishable characteristics of color are hue, saturation, and brightness. White light, or nearly white light from the Sun, contains a continuous distribution of wavelengths.
Tints and shadesIn common language, the term "shade" can be generalized to furthermore encompass any varieties of a particular color, whether technically they are shades, tints, tones, or slightly different hues; while the term "tint" can be generalized to refer to the any lighter or darker variation of a color (e.g. Tinted windows). When mixing colored light (additive color models), the achromatic mixture of spectrally balanced red, green and blue (RGB) is always white, not gray or black. It is common among some artistic painters to darken a paint color by adding black paint—producing colors called shades—or to lighten a color by adding white—producing colors called tints. An extension of the color wheel: the color sphere. References See also
Alles over water - Water startpaginaExploring Light: Absorb, Reflect, Transmit or Refract?Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standard Network (ASN), a project of JES & Co. (www.jesandco.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc. Click on the standard groupings to explore this hierarchy as it applies to this document. Learning Objectives After this activity, students should be able to: Explain the properties of light as related to security systems. This activity also meets the following Tennessee Foundations of Technology educational technology content standards: 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0; see Introduction/Motivation Assessment Activity Embedded Assessment References
OpticsOptics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. Explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering light's particle-like properties, the light is modelled as a collection of particles called "photons". Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, and medicine (particularly ophthalmology and optometry). History Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians. . where and