Writing in the Disciplines: English - The Process of Writing an English Research Paper The Process of Writing An English Research Paper (printable version here) 1. Choosing an Area of Focus One of the most important steps in the process of writing a research paper for the English discipline is choosing an interesting, engaging topic. An instructor may offer students a range of topics from which to choose or allow students to choose their own areas of focus. Your choice of topic will influence both the effort you invest in your research and the degree to which you enjoy the process. 2. Before beginning in-depth research, consult your instructor. 3. This is perhaps the most important step in the research paper writing process. In order to avoid later confusion, begin each section by recording the author's name, book or article title, and page numbers (if relevant). 4. After rereading your notes and reflecting on the topic, formulate a tentative one-sentence thesis. An initial thesis should be tentative. 5. 6. 7. Is your thesis clear and precise?
Social Constructivist Theories For a general intro to constructivism click: Overview of constructivism. Overview of Social Constructivism Another cognitive psychologist, Lev Vygotsky ( shared many of Piaget's ( assumptions about how children learn, but he placed more emphasis on the social context of learning. There is a great deal of overlap between cognitive constructivism and Vygotsky's social constructivist theory. Although Vygotsky died at the age of 38 in 1934, most of his publications did not appear in English until after 1960. We call Vygotsky's brand of constructivism social constructivism because he emphasized the critical importance of culture and the importance of the social context for cognitive development. There are thousands of books, articles, and papers on the theories of Vygotsky and the implications of those theories for teaching and learning. General Implications of Social Constructivism 1.
Urban gardening in Greece – A new form of protest - Green European Journal The Greek crisis has radically changed Greek society, politics and the economy. In just a few years the “Greek Dream” of the beginning of the 21st century, when Greece had experienced some years of rapid GDP growth (about 4% for the first 4 years of the new millennium) mainly due to construction and consumption, has turned into a nightmare. The Greek society is a society in great depression. In this article we will focus on the development of new forms of social movements, social conflicts and solidarity initiatives that we consider to be part of the green ideals and could help the Greek society get out of depression. Greek crisis and environmental protection Environmental politics were never well developed in Greece, but in the last years before the economic crisis the Greek environmental movement has had a short “renaissance”. Concepts like the transition movement, social economy, degrowth and urban agriculture start taking new meanings thanks to these groups. A new phenomenon
Academic and Professional Writing: Writing a Research Paper This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide. Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic Try to find a topic that truly interests you Try writing your way to a topic Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources You will need to look at the following types of sources: library catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, suggestions from your instructor primary vs. secondary sources journals, books, other documents Grouping, Sequencing, and Documenting Information The following systems will help keep you organized: Writing an Outline and a Prospectus for Yourself What is the topic?
Constructivism in learning Constructivism is the label given to a set of theories about learning which fall somewhere between cognitive and humanistic views. If behaviourism treats the organism as a black box, cognitive theory recognises the importance of the mind in making sense of the material with which it is presented. Nevertheless, it still presupposes that the role of the learner is primarily to assimilate whatever the teacher presents. Constructivism — particularly in its "social" forms — suggests that the learner is much more actively involved in a joint enterprise with the teacher of creating ("constructing") new meanings. We can distinguish between "cognitive constructivism" which is about how the individual learner understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning styles, and "social constructivism", which emphasises how meanings and understandings grow out of social encounters—see Vygotsky below. In this sense, conversational theories of learning fit into the constructivist framework.
Urbanisierung auf dem Vormarsch – Trends, Herausforderungen, Chancen | URBAN HUB Eine effektive Steuerung des Stroms von Menschen, die sich innerhalb von und zwischen unterschiedlichen Gebäuden bewegen, ist in Städten ein absolutes Muss. Stellen Sie sich beispielsweise vor, was geschehen würde, wenn plötzlich alle Aufzüge in einer Großstadt stehen blieben – die Folgen wären Chaos, Panik und nicht zuletzt auch Umsatzverluste. Neueste Technologien zur Personenbeförderung versprechen höhere Geschwindigkeiten, verbesserte Sicherheit und einen geringeren Raumbedarf für Aufzugsschächte und nutzen intelligente Algorithmen zur Verwaltung der Fahrgastströme. Angesichts des Ausmaßes und der Verteilung des weltweiten Bevölkerungswachstums, der zunehmenden Überalterung und der prognostizierten Anzahl benötigter Neubauten besteht dringender Bedarf an technologischem Fortschritt im Bereich der fahrzeugunabhängigen horizontalen und vertikalen Mobilität.
Learning Theories: Jerome Bruner On The Scaffolding Of Learning - Learning Theories: Jerome Bruner On The Scaffolding Of Learning by Steve Wheeler, Associate Professor, Plymouth Institute of Education In this post, we explore the work of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding of learning. This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the original works. The Theory Bruner’s theory of scaffolding emerged around 1976 as a part of social constructivist theory, and was particularly influenced by the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Bruner believed that when children start to learn new concepts, they need help from teachers and other adults in the form of active support. In a very specific way, scaffolding represents a reduction in the many choices a child might face, so that they become focused only on acquiring the skill or knowledge that is required. How It Can Be Applied To Education It is important for teachers to provide opportunities for children to constantly learn new things. Reference Wood, D.
The 5 Elements Students Should Look For When Evaluating Web Content March , 2014 In a section in her wonderful book "Understanding The Social Lives of Networked Teens" Danah Boyd talked extensively about the concept of digital natives and argued that this nomenclature does not really capture the essence of what a digitally savvy teenager really means. Dana argued that the mere fact of being comfortable with a social media tool does not prove that the user has a digital fluency to allow them to better use it for educational purposes : Just because teens are comfortable using social media to hang out does not mean that they’re fluent in or with technology. Learning how to evaluate online content is an essential step in the process of developing digitally literate students. Watch this short introduction to CRAAP Currency: Is the information too old.
Architecture and Planning and Pattern Languages Cat Johnson Photo: Gene StullThe following is a conversation between Dave Pollard, one of the core members of the nonprofit collective that produced the Group Works deck, and sharing and political activist Paxus Calta. They discuss what these pattern languages are, why they’re important, and how they’re being used. Why are most meetings, conferences and other deliberative processes so bad? Seven years ago, a group of professional facilitators convened to answer that question and see if they could come up with a better way. They ended up producing Group Works: A Pattern Language for Bringing Life to Meetings and Other Gatherings, a 100-card deck of exemplary group practices that has since been used by thousands of people in over two dozen countries. Paxus Calta: What is a pattern language, and why do you think pattern languages are important? Tell us something about how Group Works was created. The 91 patterns and nine categories the group settled on Who uses Group Works?
Education Theory/Constructivism and Social Constructivism - UCD - CTAG "Constructivism is the philosophical and scientific position that knowledge arises through a process of active construction."(Mascolol & Fischer, 2005) "As long as there were people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn’t changed." Background Constructivism and Social Constructivism are two similar learning theories which share a large number of underlying assumptions, and an interpretive epistemological position. Underlying Assumptions Jonassen (1994) proposed that there are eight characteristics that underline the constructivist learning environments and are applicable to both perspectives: Constructivist learning environments provide multiple representations of reality. Epistemology The default epistemology in education is an empirical/reductionist approach to teaching and learning. There is no absolute knowledge, just our interpretation of it. Dewey Piaget
Research and Citation If you are having trouble locating a specific resource please visit the search page or the Site Map. Conducting Research These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet. Using Research These OWL resources will help you use the research you have conducted in your documents. APA Style These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. MLA Style These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. Chicago Manual of Style This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. American Medical Association (AMA) Style