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Stuxnet is a computer worm[1] that was discovered in June 2010. It was designed to attack industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PLCs allow the automation of electromechanical processes such as those used to control machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or centrifuges for separating nuclear material. Exploiting four zero-day flaws,[2] Stuxnet functions by targeting machines using the Microsoft Windows operating system and networks, then seeking out Siemens Step7 software. Stuxnet reportedly compromised Iranian PLCs, collecting information on industrial systems and causing the fast-spinning centrifuges to tear themselves apart.[3] Stuxnet’s design and architecture are not domain-specific and it could be tailored as a platform for attacking modern SCADA and PLC systems (e.g. in the automobile or power plants), the majority of which reside in Europe, Japan and the US.[4] Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one-fifth of Iran's nuclear centrifuges.[5] Discovery[edit]

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A Cyberworm that Knows No Boundaries Iran's announcement that a computer worm called Stuxnet had infected computers that controlled one of its nuclear processing facilities marked a signal event in cyber attacks. Although such attacks were known to be theoretically possible, the incident proved that a cyberworm could successfully infiltrate a system and produce physical damage. Furthermore, the sophisticated nature of the worm and the resources that would have been required to design, produce, and implant it strongly suggest a state-sponsored effort. It has become clear that Stuxnet-like worms pose a serious threat even to infrastructure and computer systems that are not connected to the Internet.

An Unprecedented Look at Stuxnet, the World's First Digital Weapon This recent undated satellite image provided by Space Imaging/Inta SpaceTurk shows the once-secret Natanz nuclear complex in Natanz, Iran, about 150 miles south of Tehran. AP Photo/Space Imaging/Inta SpaceTurk, HO In January 2010, inspectors with the International Atomic Energy Agency visiting the Natanz uranium enrichment plant in Iran noticed that centrifuges used to enrich uranium gas were failing at an unprecedented rate. The cause was a complete mystery—apparently as much to the Iranian technicians replacing the centrifuges as to the inspectors observing them. Five months later a seemingly unrelated event occurred.

United States Navy Marine Mammal Program - Wikipedia The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals - principally bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions - and trains animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and equipment recovery. FBI intent on sniffing out those who leaked possible US Stuxnet role Federal investigators in the US are tightening the screws on former senior government officials who might have leaked info about the Stuxnet worm, according to The Washington Post. Last June, Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. started the inquiry into loose lips. As Naked Security recounts here, the Stuxnet virus was seemingly created by the US, under the regime of President George W.

The Real Story of Stuxnet Computer cables snake across the floor. Cryptic flowcharts are scrawled across various whiteboards adorning the walls. A life-size Batman doll stands in the hall. This office might seem no different than any other geeky workplace, but in fact it’s the front line of a war—a cyberwar, where most battles play out not in remote jungles or deserts but in suburban office parks like this one. As a senior researcher for Kaspersky Lab, a leading computer security firm based in Moscow, Roel Schouwenberg spends his days (and many nights) here at the lab’s U.S. headquarters in Woburn, Mass., battling the most insidious digital weapons ever, capable of crippling water supplies, power plants, banks, and the very infrastructure that once seemed invulnerable to attack. Recognition of such threats exploded in June 2010 with the discovery of Stuxnet, a 500-kilobyte computer worm that infected the software of at least 14 industrial sites in Iran, including a uranium-enrichment plant.

Stuxnet was dated 2005, Symantec discovered earlier version 0,5 - Security Affairs Rivers of words have been written on the popular Stuxnet virus, there have been many hypotheses, sometimes contradictory, about its paternity but the only certainty seemed to be the date of its creation, but suddenly the certainty as happen tin he best thriller movies has been called into question. The authors of Stuxnet, the malware that hit Iranian nuclear plant in 2010 interfering with nuclear program of the Government of Teheran, started the operations earlier than previously demonstrated according a new research proposed by Symantec firm. According the study conducted by Symantec there was a predecessor of the final version of the virus, a development version that was spread in 2005 and the was designed to manipulate the nuclear facility’s gas valves. Francis deSouza, Symantec’s president of products and services, commented to Bloomberg: Symantec highlighted the differences of version 0.5 with subsequent instances of Stuxnet: The study states:

How the NSA's Firmware Hacking Works and Why It's So Unsettling One of the most shocking parts of the recently discovered spying network Equation Group is its mysterious module designed to reprogram or reflash a computer hard drive’s firmware with malicious code. The Kaspersky researchers who uncovered this said its ability to subvert hard drive firmware—the guts of any computer—“surpasses anything else” they had ever seen. The hacking tool, believed to be a product of the NSA, is significant because subverting the firmware gives the attackers God-like control of the system in a way that is stealthy and persistent even through software updates. The module, named “nls_933w.dll”, is the first of its kind found in the wild and is used with both the EquationDrug and GrayFish spy platforms Kaspersky uncovered. It also has another capability: to create invisible storage space on the hard drive to hide data stolen from the system so the attackers can retrieve it later.

Fortna, V.: Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents' Choices after Civil War. (eBook and Paperback) In the last fifteen years, the number, size, and scope of peacekeeping missions deployed in the aftermath of civil wars have increased exponentially. From Croatia and Cambodia, to Nicaragua and Namibia, international personnel have been sent to maintain peace around the world. But does peacekeeping work? And if so, how? In Does Peacekeeping Work? Virginia Page Fortna answers these questions through the systematic analysis of civil wars that have taken place since the end of the Cold War.

US-Israeli Stuxnet Cyber-attacks against Iran: “Act of War” A group of 20 law and technology experts has unanimously agreed that the Stuxnet worm used against Iran in 2009-2010 was a cyberattack. The US and Israel have long been accused of collaborating on the virus in a bid to damage Iran’s nuclear program. While that accusations against Washington and Tel Aviv have never been confirmed by either government, a NATO Commission has now confirmed it as an “ act of force. ” Zeus (malware) "Zbot" redirects here. For the action figures, see Zbots. Zeus is very difficult to detect even with up-to-date antivirus software as it hides itself using stealth techniques[citation needed] It is considered that this is the primary reason why the Zeus malware has become the largest botnet on the Internet: some 3.6 million PCs are said to be infected in the U.S. alone[citation needed].