Collective intelligence Types of collective intelligence Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. History A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that seemingly independent individuals can cooperate so closely as to become indistinguishable from a single organism (1911). Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a "superorganism". Dimensions Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior—collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. Openness
Swarm intelligence Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The expression was introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics, while 'swarm intelligence' refers to the more general set of algorithms. Example algorithms Particle swarm optimization Ant colony optimization Artificial bee colony algorithm Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a meta-heuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga in 2005, and simulates the foraging behaviour of honey bees. Bacterial colony optimization The algorithm is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. Differential evolution
Den kollektiva intelligensen ger framgång rätt använd Internet är moget. Särskilt brukarna är mogna och börjar använda nätet på ett intelligent sätt. Besökarna är så smarta att man kan tala om en kollektiv intelligens. Deras, av varandra oberoende, beslut är mycket bättre än vad alla experter tror och väntar sig. Det är kollektiv intelligens. Självständiga beslut i gemensam fråga Kollektiv intelligens är inget nytt. Ifrågasatta auktoriteter Det bygger på att vi kan tänka själva och att vi gör det. Farligt för diktaturer och fundamentalister Därför försöker totalitära regeringar begränsa tillgången till nätet. Massan totalitär Det är skillnad på massa och kollektiv. Oberoende individer Kollektivet bygger på att varje individ tänker och beslutar oberoende av de övriga. Ensamma tänker vi fritt Situationen framför skärmen är inte olik den bakom valhemlighetens skärm. Använd kraften i den kollektiva intelligensen Det är kraften i denna kollektiva intelligens vi måste lära oss att använda. Jämförande nätplatser Köpare och säljare bedömer varandra
Crowd psychology Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is a branch of social psychology. Social psychologists have developed several theories for explaining the ways in which the psychology of the crowd differs from and interacts with that of the individuals within it. Major theorists in crowd psychology include Gustave Le Bon, Gabriel Tarde, Sigmund Freud and Steve Reicher. This field relates to the behaviors and thought processes of both the individual crowd members and the crowd as an entity. Crowd behavior is heavily influenced by the loss of responsibility of the individual and the impression of universality of behavior, both of which increase with the size of the crowd. Origins The psychological study of crowd phenomena began in the decades just prior to 1900 as European culture was imbued with thoughts of the fin de siècle. The first debate in crowd psychology began in Rome at the first International Congress of Criminal Anthropology on 16 November 1885. See also
Subconscious In psychology, the subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness. The word subconscious is an anglicized version of the French subconscient as coined by the psychologist Pierre Janet, who argued that underneath the layers of critical thought functions of the conscious mind lay a powerful awareness that he called the subconscious mind. Because there is a limit to the information that can be held in conscious focal awareness, a storehouse of one's knowledge and prior experience is needed; this is the subconscious. The subconscious and psychoanalysis The subconscious is commonly encountered as a replacement for the unconscious mind and therefore, laypersons commonly assume that the subconscious is a psychoanalytic term; it isn't. The subconscious and instinct The subconscious mind is a composite of everything one sees, hears and any information the mind collects that it cannot otherwise consciously process to make meaningful sense.
justifiable existence Kin selection The co-operative behaviour of social insects like the honey bee can be explained by kin selection. Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction. Kin altruism is altruistic behaviour whose evolution is driven by kin selection. Kin selection is an instance of inclusive fitness, which combines the number of offspring produced with the number an individual can produce by supporting others, such as siblings. Charles Darwin discussed the concept of kin selection in his 1859 book, The Origin of Species, where he reflected on the puzzle of sterile social insects, such as honey bees, which leave reproduction to their sisters, arguing that a selection benefit to related organisms (the same "stock") would allow the evolution of a trait that confers the benefit but destroys an individual at the same time. R.A. Historical overview W. Hamilton's rule where
Kollektiv intelligens slår Steve Jobs | Blogs | Øresund IT Visst finns det smarta personer. Riktigt smarta. Som Steve Jobs. Av Peter Höjerback Vi får alla höra att det viktigaste i våra jobb är att ”skapa värde”. En av IT-världens stora förebilder är Steve Jobs, mannen bakom prylar som Mac-datorn, iPod och iPhone samt bolag som Next och Pixar. Om man måste vara som Steve Jobs för att vara innovativ och tillföra värde blir det tufft för oss alla. Oavsett din intelligens förslår det nämligen inte långt jämfört med kraften av ett tiotal normalbegåvade personer, förutsatt att de kan samarbeta. Jag har på sistone provat en del samarbetsverktyg och ser klara fördelar med hur det kan användas. Även webbapplikationer ger stor hjälp när du vill vara innovativ. Så om du funderar på hur du ska skapa värde och inte är Steve Jobs, prova med lite ”kollektiv intelligens” i form av de spännande nya verktygen på internet. [Denna artikel kommer i sin slutliga form att presenteras i nästa Affärs- och Kapitalnytt.
Collective identity Collective identity is the shared sense of belonging to a group. It is conceptualized as individuals’ identifications of, identifications with, or attachment to certain groups. Collective Identity in Sociology In 1989, Alberto Melucci published Nomads of the Present, which introduces his model of collective identity based on studies of the social movements of the 1980s. Alberto Melucci writes, “collective identity is an interactive and shared definition produced by several interacting individuals who are concerned with the orientation of their action as well as the field of opportunities and constraints in which their action takes place.” Cognitive Definitions: the formulation of a cognitive framework concerning goals, means and environment of actionActive Relationship: the activation of relationships among participantsEmotional Investments: emotional recognition between individuals. Collective Identity in Social Psychology Collective Identity in Political Science
Inner child In popular psychology and analytical psychology, inner child is our childlike aspect. It includes all that we learned and experienced as children, before puberty. The inner child denotes a semi-independent entity subordinate to the waking conscious mind. The inner child is the best known lower third of a comprehensive model of the human psyche called the Three Selves.  The Twelve-step program recovery movement considers healing the inner child to be one of the essential stages in recovery from addiction, abuse, trauma, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Origins The inner child is often characterized as a subpersonality. See also References
22 Things Happy People Do Differently | Successify! This article is from Chiara Fucarino. Enjoy! Disclaimer: This article is not intended to address those with clinical depression or other mental illnesses. There are two types of people in the world: those who choose to be happy, and those who choose to be unhappy. Contrary to popular belief, happiness doesn’t come from fame, fortune, other people, or material possessions. The question is: how do they do that? It’s quite simple. 1. Happy people understand that it’s better to forgive and forget than to let their negative feelings crowd out their positive feelings. 2. Did you know that it has been scientifically proven that being kind makes you happier? 3. The word “problem” is never part of a happy person’s vocabulary. 4. There’s a popular saying that goes something like this: “The happiest people don’t have the best of everything; they just make the best of everything they have.” 5. 6. Happy people ask themselves, “Will this problem matter a year from now?” 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
Altruism helps swarming robots fly better, study shows EPFL to give away 2,500 tiny robots Saturday iCub, an EPFL robot (photo, ©2011 iCub / EPFL) (video at end) Lausanne, Switzerland (GenevaLunch) – Why we are altruistic, sacrificing individual gains for the greater good of a group, has just become a little clearer, thanks to hundreds of generations of robots in Lausanne. Researchers in engineering and robotics at EPFL in Lausanne and in biology at the University of Lausanne 3 May reported their findings into the genetics of altruism, a project that involved using robots to more quickly see how altruism develops over generations. Robotics Festival brings cutting edge robots to public The altruistic robots work was carried out by EPFL robotics professor Dario Floreano and University of Lausanne biologist Laurent Keller. Their paper was published in the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) Biology. The study will help biologists but it has already had an impact on other robots at EPFL, notably swarms of flying robots.