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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and thinking."[1] Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study including social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, and economics. History[edit] With the philosophical debate continuing, the mid to late 18th century was a critical time in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. In the mid-20th century, three main influences arose that would inspire and shape cognitive psychology as a formal school of thought: With the development of new warfare technology during WWII, the need for a greater understanding of human performance came to prominence. The term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.

Related:  Development of Cognitive Behavioral theoryCognitive Psychologyfields related to Evolutionary Psychology

Stress Inoculation Training Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology | Clinical:Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences · Stress Inoculation Training is a cognitive-behavioral approach providing people with added psychological resilience against the effects of stress through a program of managed successful exposure to stressful situations. The approach was developed by Donald Meichenbaum The program usually comprises three phases:

Psychophysics Psychophysics also refers to a general class of methods that can be applied to study a perceptual system. Modern applications rely heavily on threshold measurement,[3] ideal observer analysis, and signal detection theory.[4] Psychophysics has widespread and important practical applications. As just one example, in the study of digital signal processing, psychophysics has informed the development of models and methods of lossy compression. Behavioral ecology Some examples of Behavioural Ecology An African elephant crossing a river Behavioral ecology is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.

Cognition Cognition is a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.[4] These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, systemics, and computer science.[5][page needed] Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence. It encompasses the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts), and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines, and artificial intelligences).[3]

Artificial intelligence AI research is divided into subfields[6] that focus on specific problems, approaches, the use of a particular tool, or towards satisfying particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[7] General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.[8] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics.

Learning Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play. 85 percent of brain development occurs during the first five years of a child's life.[6] The context of conversation based on moral reasoning offers some proper observations on the responsibilities of parents.[7]

Ulric Neisser Ulric Gustav Neisser (December 8, 1928 – February 17, 2012[1]) was a German-born American psychologist and member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He was a significant figure in the development of cognitive science and the shift from behaviorist to cognitive models in psychology. Early life and education[edit] Born in Kiel, Germany, Neisser moved with his family to the United States in 1933. Genetics Genetics (from the Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos meaning "genitive"/"generative", in turn from γένεσις genesis meaning "origin"),[1][2][3] a field in biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.[4][5] Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of a gene.