Contributions of the Framingham Heart Study to the Epidemiology of Coronary Heart Disease | JAMA Cardiology | JAMA Network Since its launch in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study has proved critical to shaping and enhancing our understanding of the history and root causes of coronary heart disease (CHD). A modern prototype for population-based studies, the Framingham Heart Study garnered widespread recognition in its early years for identifying risk factors for CHD and stroke and formulating CHD risk scores. Although the study remains iconic for its robust design and successes in uncovering risk factors for CHD, it has undergone transformations during the past 2 decades. The 21st century ushered in a new era in “molecular epidemiology” centered on cutting-edge genetic and “-omics technologies.” Framingham Heart Study investigators embraced these opportunities by pioneering genome-wide association studies at the population level and examining CHD through the lens of genetic variation, gene expression, and microRNA signatures.
image uploaded by @Acrocephalus (Acrocephalus |*|) OpenTrials: what, why and how? We’ve recently published a paper in the journal Trials on something we’re building right now. It’s an ambitious idea, and long overdue: OpenTrials, an open, freely accessible index of all publicly accessible documents and data ever made available, on all clinical trials ever conducted. The messy world of clinical trials You might find it surprising that such a thing doesn’t already exist. Whole trials are routinely left unpublished, which exposes the medical literature to avoidable bias and exaggeration. Whole trials are routinely left unpublished, which exposes the medical literature to avoidable bias and exaggeration. You can find the same trials reporting different results in different places, and the information in journal articles has been shown to be less complete than – and discrepant with – other sources like clinical study reports. All data on all trials in one place This isn’t a new idea. Placing all the information in one place serves two important functions. A three step process
Strambotic » 9 personajes de la vida política que son calcados a supervillanos de ficción 9 personajes de la vida política que son calcados a supervillanos de ficción Strambotic Existen personajes de la vida política que son calcados a supervillanos de ficción. Si ya es insólito ver el sobrenatural parecido de Montoro, por ejemplo, con el Sr. - Montoro y Burns: los malévolos clones y su plan para dominar el mundo ¿Cómo pueden ser tan parecidos los dos y la vez tener esa jeta tan truculenta? Y, si se une Gallardón-Smithers, ya tenemos el cuadro al completo. El parecido entre el ministro Montoro y el villano de los Simpsons, el Sr. Planes de supervillanos: tapar la luz del sol (Burns); asfixiar a los españoles con impuestos estratosféricos (Montoro). Resultados: Burns fracasó en su intento de tapar el sol, pero su malvado clon, en este plano de la realidad, Montoro consiguió grandes cantidades de pasta para seguir con sus intrigas. - Zapatero y el Joker :¡A descojonarnos todos, no hay crisis! - Juan Carlos y Magneto: los increíbles imanes andantes - Aznar y Trask: esos locos bajitos
Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews | Implementation Science | Full Text Although knowledge of rapid review techniques is expanding, limited methodological research exists and, overall, many rapid review reports lack transparency in terms of methods employed. Lehoux et al. conducted a study related to the knowledge and production of health technology assessments and reached similar conclusions . Lehoux et al. acknowledge the need for short reports for policy and decision makers, yet also suggests a need for publishing these rapid reviews within peer-reviewed journals with greater emphasis on describing the methods used. Within this literature review, the majority of references provided examples of rapid reviews, with varying amounts of detail on the methods used. Some additional studies and methodological articles either discussed rapid review methodologies or addressed methodological implications of the streamlined steps used within some rapid reviews. Rapid methods used within examples of rapid reviews Nomenclature Methodological Approaches
Welcome to Rustle the Leaf Environmental Comics! Autism and vaccines: Why telling every side of a scientific story is rarely fair Scientists and science communicators alike breathed a collective sigh of relief on March 26 when organizers of the upcoming Tribeca Film Festival announced they would pull a controversial documentary, decried for its wholly unscientific claims, from the lineup in the wake of outspoken protest against its screening. While this is a happy ending to what was nearly a major mistake for the festival, the events raise important questions about what constitutes a truly fair and balanced discourse on an issue. But I’ll back up for a minute. The film in question is called Vaxxed: From Cover-up to Catastrophe, and its trailer suggests that it’s a minefield of anti-vaccine rhetoric, promising the story of a government cover-up aimed at hiding a link between vaccines and autism. This, in and of itself, is enough to incite rage from the scientific community. A retraction and years of controversy So how did the offending documentary make it into the festival in the first place? An honest dialogue
image uploaded by @Acrocephalus (Acrocephalus |*|) Five steps to conducting a systematic review What if Classic Books Were Given Click-Baity Titles? Love it or hate it, so-called click bait has become part of content marketing. While many people see these types of social messages or headlines as a trick being played on the consumer, the reason that they’ve become the norm is that they work. And they don’t just work once, they work over and over again. This is not unlike classic literature, many examples of which have graced the high school desks of children, their parents and even their grandparents. But as kids become more tech-savvy, many are turning away from reading as a means of education and entertainment. How not to end a relationship A.K.A. These two kids were attacked by a racist. A.K.A. Old school Wolf of Wall Street? A.K.A. The “Rich Kids of Instagram” have nothing on this guy A.K.A. Watch this guy’s science experiment go horribly wrong A.K.A. One of the most epic #roadtrips of all time A.K.A. What if Twilight featured normal looking people? A.K.A. The 5 types of people you don’t want to be trapped on a deserted island with
Risk Ratios and Rate Ratios (Relative Risk) Measures of disease frequency can be compared by calculating their ratio. Common terms to describe these ratios are Frequently, the term "relative risk" is used to encompass all of these. Risk Ratio For the study examining wound infections after incidental appendectomy, the risk of wound infection in each exposure group is estimated from the cumulative incidence. Risk Ratio = (CIe) / (CIu) where CIe is the cumulative incidence in the 'exposed' group and CIu is the cumulative incidence in the 'unexposed' group. The table below shows how the risk ratio was calculated in the study examining the risk of wound infections when an incidental appendectomy was done during a staging laparotomy for Hodgkins disease. Risk Ratio = 5.34/1.27 = 4.2 Organization of the information in a contingency table facilitates analysis and interpretation. Interpretation: Risk Ratio < 1 Risk Ratio = 0.0126/0.0217 = 0.58 Note also that the unexposed (comparison, reference) group must be specified. In general: When RR > 1