Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. Some of the processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception. Biofeedback may be used to improve health, performance, and the physiological changes that often occur in conjunction with changes to thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Eventually, these changes may be maintained without the use of extra equipment, even though no equipment is necessarily required to practice biofeedback. Biofeedback has been found to be effective for the treatment of headaches and migraines. Definition Sensor modalities Electromyograph The "Muscle Whistler", shown here with surface EMG electrodes, was an early biofeedback device Feedback thermometer Electrodermograph
BiofeedbackBiofeedback is a technique you can use to learn to control your body's functions, such as your heart rate. With biofeedback, you're connected to electrical sensors that help you receive information (feedback) about your body (bio). This feedback helps you focus on making subtle changes in your body, such as relaxing certain muscles, to achieve the results you want, such as reducing pain. In essence, biofeedback gives you the power to use your thoughts to control your body, often to help with a health condition or physical performance. Why it's doneJan. 26, 2013 References About biofeedback.
Cold Room? Heat It Up with A Homemade Solar Air Heater | Science ProjectSummary Average (6-10 days) None Readily available Average ($50 - $100) You need to cut cardboard for this project and use paint. Michelle Maranowski, PhD, Science Buddies This project is derived from this solar air heater project: U.S. Abstract What do humans need to survive? Objective To build a simple solar air heater and heat the air in a room. Introduction The Sun is a medium-sized star in the center of our solar system that is a powerful and continuous source of energy. There are many ways to take advantage of the power and energy that the Sun provides. When you stand outside on a warm, sunny day, you can feel the warm air around you. Terms and Concepts Watt (W) Power Joule (J) Energy Questions How is the Sun's energy used to create electricity on Earth? Bibliography Solar Action Alliance. The following references, along with additional references on their pages, give lots of information about solar energy and different methods to take advantage of free energy. Rathjen, Don. (2001). Careers
The Science of Biofeedback & Proper BreathingCorrelation of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Solar Sunspot Cycle | Science ProjectSummary Long (2-4 weeks) None Readily available Very Low (under $20) No issues Andrew Olson, Ph.D., Science Buddies Abstract Scientists have known for hundreds of years that sunspot activity waxes and wanes over a cycle that lasts approximately 11 years. Objective The goal of this project is to determine whether there is a correlation between coronal mass ejection activity and the solar sunspot cycle, using historical data. Introduction You know that the sun is the ultimate source of energy for most life on earth. CMEs can not only put on a spectacular light show, they can also wreak havoc with earth-orbiting satellites and sometimes even ground-based electrical systems. "At over 1.4 million kilometers (869,919 miles) wide, the Sun contains 99.86 percent of the mass of the entire solar system: well over a million Earths could fit inside its bulk. To understand where CMEs originate, you should do background research on the structure of the sun. What is a sunspot, anyway? Terms and Concepts Careers
The Science of BiofeedbackCatching Stardust | Science ProjectSummary Very Short (≤ 1 day) None Readily available Very Low (under $20) No issues Sara Agee, Ph.D., Science Buddies Abstract How do astronomers collect stardust? Objective In this experiment you will build your own mini satellites and use them to test if the number of particles collected during a satellite mission is related to the orbit distance from the satellite to the object being observed. Introduction In 2006, scientists at NASA got a very special delivery all the way from outer space. When the capsule landed in the desert of Utah in 2006, scientists were relieved to see the tiny space particles unharmed and ready to be studied. How did the satellite capture the particles? In this experiment, you will build your own mini satellite and use it to collect some pretend stellar debris. Terms and Concepts To do this type of experiment you should know what the following terms mean. Satellite Stardust Particles Orbit Distance Questions Bibliography Materials and Equipment Experimental Procedure
Do-It-Yourself DNA | Science ProjectSummary Very Short (≤ 1 day) None Readily available Very Low (under $20) No issues Sara Agee, Ph.D., Science Buddies Teisha Rowland, Ph.D., Science Buddies Sources This project is from the "Understanding Genetics: Human Health and the Genome" 2013 exhibit at The Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose, CA. Abstract All living things have DNA inside their cells. Objective Design a DNA Extraction Kit and use it to purify DNA from strawberries. Introduction All living things come with a set of instructions stored in their DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid. Scientists study DNA for many reasons. How do scientists get the DNA out of a cell so that they can study it? Why use strawberries to test your DNA extraction kit? Terms and Concepts DNA Genome DNA extraction Lyse Precipitate Questions How can you extract the DNA out of a strawberry? Bibliography Here you can learn more about the structure and role of DNA: Ducksters. Rice, G. Visit the "Journey into DNA" website at PBS. The Jackson Laboratory (2015).
Build an Artificial HandKey concepts Engineering Robot Anatomy Gripping Introduction The human hand is pretty amazing. You can do things such as pick up a pencil, use a video game controller or climb a jungle gym without giving it much thought. Background The human hand has five fingers, each with multiple joints. Engineers have been trying to build robotic hands for years, but it turns out that this is very difficult. In this project you will build a simple artificial gripper using drinking straws and string. Materials Plastic drinking strawsNeedle (Use caution and adult help when handling sharp objects.)StringPaper clipsModeling clayAssorted small objects to pick upScissorsTweezers (optional)Small rubber bands (optional)Paper towel tube (optional) Preparation Assemble all of your materials on a flat working space that has enough area to make and test your creation. Procedure First you will practice making a single "finger." Sign up for Scientific American’s free newsletters.