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Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.[1][2] Some of the processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception.[3] Biofeedback may be used to improve health, performance, and the physiological changes that often occur in conjunction with changes to thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Eventually, these changes may be maintained without the use of extra equipment, even though no equipment is necessarily required to practice biofeedback.[2] Biofeedback has been found to be effective for the treatment of headaches and migraines.[4][5] Definition[edit] Sensor modalities[edit] Electromyograph[edit] The "Muscle Whistler", shown here with surface EMG electrodes, was an early biofeedback device[6] Feedback thermometer[edit] Electrodermograph[edit] Related:  Development of Cognitive Behavioral theory

Albert Ellis Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in clinical psychology from Columbia University and American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He also founded and was the President of the New York City-based Albert Ellis Institute for decades.[1] He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and the founder of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Based on a 1982 professional survey of USA and Canadian psychologists, he was considered as the second most influential psychotherapist in history (Carl Rogers ranked first in the survey; Sigmund Freud was ranked third).[2][3] Early life[edit] Ellis was born to a Jewish family in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, in 1913. In his autobiography, Ellis characterized his mother as a self-absorbed woman with a bipolar disorder. Ellis and religion[edit]

Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique you can use to learn to control your body's functions, such as your heart rate. With biofeedback, you're connected to electrical sensors that help you receive information (feedback) about your body (bio). This feedback helps you focus on making subtle changes in your body, such as relaxing certain muscles, to achieve the results you want, such as reducing pain. In essence, biofeedback gives you the power to use your thoughts to control your body, often to help with a health condition or physical performance. Why it's doneJan. 26, 2013 References About biofeedback.

Aaron T. Beck Background and personal life[edit] Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings to Russian Jewish immigrants. Beck's daughter, Judith S. Beck, Ph.D., is a prominent cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) educator and clinician, who wrote the basic text in the field. She is President of the non-profit Beck Institute.[11] Beck was married in 1950 to the Honorable Phyllis W. Education[edit] Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942.[14] At Brown he was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, was an associate editor of The Brown Daily Herald, and received the Francis Wayland Scholarship, William Gaston Prize for Excellence in Oratory, and Philo Sherman Bennett Essay Award.[13] Beck attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an M.D. in 1946. Honorary degrees[edit] Career[edit] Early work[edit] CBT, psychotherapy, and psychiatry[edit] Beck developed cognitive therapy in the early 1960s as a psychiatrist at Penn. Works[edit]

The Science of Biofeedback & Proper Breathing Cognitive therapy Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. CT is one of the therapeutic approaches within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) and was first expounded by Beck in the 1960s. Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses. As an example of how CT works might work: Having made a mistake at work, a man may believe, "I'm useless and can't do anything right at work." People who are working with a cognitive therapist often practice the use of more flexible ways to think and respond, learning to ask themselves whether their thoughts are completely true, and whether those thoughts are helping them to meet their goals. History[edit] Types[edit]

The Science of Biofeedback Edward C. Tolman Edward Chace Tolman (April 14, 1886 – November 19, 1959) was an American psychologist. He was most famous for his studies on behavioral psychology. Background[edit] Born in West Newton, Massachusetts, brother of CalTech physicist Richard Chace Tolman, Edward C. Tolman studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1915. Psychological work[edit] Tolman is best known for his studies of learning in rats using mazes, and he published many experimental articles, of which his paper with Ritchie and Kalish in 1946 was probably the most influential. Although Tolman was firmly behaviorist in his methodology, he was not a radical behaviorist like B. A key paper by Tolman, Ritchie and Kalish in 1946 demonstrated that rats that had explored a maze that contained food while they were not hungry were able to run it correctly on the first trial when they entered it having now been made hungry. Tolman won many awards and honors. See also[edit]

Clark L. Hull Clark Leonard Hull (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) was an influential American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. Hull is known for his debates with Edward C. Tolman. He is also known for his work in drive theory. Hull spent the mature part of his career at Yale University, where he was recruited by the president and former-psychologist, James Rowland Angell. He is perhaps best known for the "goal gradient" effect or hypothesis, wherein organisms spend disproportionate amounts of effort in the final stages of attainment of the object of drives. Background[edit] Early life[edit] Higher education[edit] Later life[edit] In addition to his other teachings, he was able to teach a psychological test and measurement course. During 1929, he began employment with Yale University and retained it until his death. Research in psychology[edit] Hull’s primary interest was in theories of learning and behaviors that lead to learning. Hypnosis[edit]

Drive theory In psychology, a drive theory or drive doctrine[1] is a theory that attempts to define, analyze or classify the psychological drives. A drive is an “excitatory state produced by a homeostatic disturbance”,[2] an instinctual need that has the power of driving the behaviour of an individual.[3] Drive theory is based on the principle that organisms are born with certain psychological needs and that a negative state of tension is created when these needs are not satisfied. When a need is satisfied, drive is reduced and the organism returns to a state of homeostasis and relaxation. According to the theory, drive tends to increase over time and operates on a feedback control system, much like a thermostat. Psychoanalysis[edit] In Freudian psychoanalysis, drive theory (German: Triebtheorie, German: Trieblehre)[1] refers to the theory of drives, motivations, or instincts, that have clear objects. Early attachment theory[edit] Social psychology[edit] Corroborative evidence[edit] See Also[edit] Sisu